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Cover Name, Cryptonym, Pseudonym, and Real Name Index

A Research Historian’s Working Reference

Compiled  by John Earl Haynes

 

updated April 2009

 

            This index originated when Harvey Klehr and I were preparing our Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America.[1]  When in 1995 the National Security Agency began releasing the nearly 3,000 deciphered Venona messages no systematic index was supplied.  In order to keep intellectual control over the messages, I constructed two data bases.  One was a summary of the portions of each message relevant to our interest in Soviet espionage in the United States or Soviet espionage involving Americans in other nations.  A second data base consisted of an index of the cover names, real names, agency and institutional names, and proper titles that occurred in the Venona messages, again those message relevant to our research focus.

 

            To the cover name index I also added cover names, cryptonyms, and similar pseudonyms from other sources.  The added names initially served as check on the reliability of the identifications provided by the NSA/FBI identifications provided in the NSA footnotes to the Venona messages.  Many identifications in Venona are entirely clear and incontestable from the information provided the message.  Others, however, are based on FBI investigations on who was where at a certain time and had access to what information and other investigatory evidence, and this background information is rarely obvious from the NSA/FBI footnote.  In less obvious cases, when two or more independent sources identify the same cover name as that of the same real name, confidence in the identification increases.  Further, the additional names sometimes provided real name identifications for cryptonyms that were unidentified in Venona and vice versa.  When identifications differed it raised the question of which source was more likely accurate and how much weight should be given to the identification.  I would add on the latter question, it is not a matter to simply comparing sources that provide cover name identifications but of also placing the identifications in the context of non-cryptographic evidence (memoirs, testimony, court evidence, congressional hearings, political history and so on) to reach a reasonable judgment about an identification.  As time and resources allow, I will add additional names.

 

            Users should keep in mind that this index was created to assist my own research work and, consequently, reflects my own priorities, habits, and concerns.  Entries may contain what amount to notes to myself and may not contain information that is sufficiently familiar to me that I saw no need to note it.  It also evolved over time and it the product of two major and several minor research projects, and entries created for one project reflected what was important at that time.  Consequently there is considerable inconsistency in formatting and in substance. 

 

            Anyone using the index should also keep in mind that cover names were changed from time-to-time and were later reused.   Cryptonym “Sparrow” might designate John Smith in 1936 but designate Frank Jones in 1940.  Further, a cover name might be used simultaneously on two different communications channels.  “Sparrow” might designate John Smith on the 1944 KGB New York-Moscow communications line but designate Eduardo Sanchez on the KGB Mexico City-Moscow channel at the same time.  Different KGB officers dealt with two channels and they would not have been confused.  Consequently, different real names for the same cryptonym are not disagreements over identifications in these cases. 

 

            It is due to questions of the chronology of the use of a cryptonym, different agencies and communications channels, and other ambiguities that a researcher must check the source of a cover name and identification for the context.  This index is a reference to take one to sources providing information about cover names and linking them to real names; it is not a source in itself and anyone with questions about the identifications should consult the sources.

 

            Additionally, researchers should keep in mind the problem of translation of names from Russian or other languages.  A Russian term used as a cover name might have several different possible meanings and be translated differently by various sources: example, the cryptonym “Gonets” used by the KGB was translated as “Express Messenger” by NSA/FBI but one could translate the term as “Runner”.  Further, there are several different systems of rendering Russian into Latin alphabet English, and different sources might use variant systems.  Variants of these types are nominal and substantively are identical. 

 

            In 2009 I combined the original index with the concordance I created when working with Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks in preparation for writing Spies: the Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (coauthored by Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev).[2]  In order to conform to conventions Vassiliev used in his notebooks and for certain other technical reasons, the conventions in that concordance differed from those used in the earlier Venona oriented index.  For example cover names in the Vassiliev notebook concordance were in double quotation marks whereas in the earlier index they were not.  Consequently there is inconsistency in conventions used for entries in this combined index as well as repetition of some entries.  In as much as it was created to assist my research, the inconsistencies do not confuse me, but a casual researcher should keep the inconsistencies in mind. 

 

            Entries from the Vassiliev notebook concordance also have other characteristics: Transliterated Russian cover names and titles are in Bold using the BGN/PCGN system for transliterating Russian from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet. The BGN/PCGN system is relatively intuitive for anglophones to read and pronounce and is familiar to many American readers because it is used by major publications. In many publications a simplified form of the system is used to render English versions of Russian names, typically converting ë to yo and simplifying -iy and -yy endings to -y.  That convention will be used here.  The Cyrillic soft sign ь is represented by a single straight quote mark, ' and the soft sign ъ by a double straight quote mark, ".

 

If the transliterated Russian is then translated, the entry will say “See ‘###’” as in:

            Betti” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Betty”.

If the transliterated Russian is not further translated, the entry will proceed normally with the initial cover name in Bold as in:

            Frank” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer 1933-1935.

 

To avoid confusion, some names and titles that have well established Latin alphabet spellings under different transliteration systems are spelled in accordance with the their predominance in the literature.  For example, “Grigory Kheifets” rather than “Grigory Kheyfets” as called for by BGN/PCGN. 

 

            In the case of Venona, a project that spanned 1943-1980 and involved many different translators, several different transliterations systems were used.  Consequently, some of the transliterations in Venona differ from the  BGN/PCGN transliterations used for Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks.

 

            A question mark, “?” in a name entry indicates that a part of the name is missing.  For example, the entry “Allakhverdov, ?”, indicates that Allakhverdov’s given name is unknown or uncertain.  

 

           

************************************************************************************

 

            Many entries note a source for the subject of the entry.  The two principle sources are the text or NSA/FBI footnotes to the Soviet KGB and GRU messages deciphered by the Venona project and released by the National Security Agency, designated as [source Venona][3]  and from Alexander Vassiliev’s notes of KGB archival documents, designated as (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks) or a variant of that.  Other sources are also used:

[source Albright Kunstel Bombshell][4]

[source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword][5]

[source Bentley FBI statement][6]

[source Chambers Witness][7]

[source Damaskin Harris][8]

[source Feklisov Rosenbergs][9]

[source Klehr Haynes Firsov Secret World][10]

[source Schecter Sacred Secrets][11]

[source Weinstein Perjury 1997 ed.][12]

[source West Venona][13]

 

 

Index

********************************

 

Numbered cover names

 

“10” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ludwig Lore. Lore is not directly named in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks, but all of the particulars of “10” (also known as “Leo”), his journalistic work and the trajectory of his journalistic commentary on Soviet matters in the 1930s, fit Lore.  In addition, Whittaker Chambers described his own contacts with Lore and comments of Soviet intelligence officers about Lore that fit with the description of “Leo” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks.  Further, Julius Kobyakov, retired senior KGB officer, identified “Leo”/“10” as Lore in 2004.[14]

“101st” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Peter MacLean.

“101-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “101st

“103rd” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): David Carpenter.

103-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “103rd

“104th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Henry Wadleigh.

104-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “104st”.

“105th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Henry Collins.

105-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “105st”.

“107th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Felix Inslerman.

107-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “107st”.

“11” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent at the State Department, subsource of “10”/“Leo”.  Likely David A. Salmon.  Also known as “Willy”.

“113th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Rosenthal,.

113-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “113st”.

“114th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Ward Pigman.

114-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “114st”.

“115th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Lester Hutm.

115-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “115st”.

“116th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Azizov.

116-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “116st”.

“118th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): F. V. Reno.

118-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “118st”.

12 [agent - source twelve] (GRU line) [source Venona]

“12” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent at the State Department, subsource of “10”/“Leo”.  Judged by KGB to be a fake source invented by “10”/“Leo” to gain more financial benefits from KGB by pocketing the subsidy paid to “12”.  Also known as “Daniel”.

“13” [agent - source thirteen] (GRU line) [source Venona]

“13” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s.

“14” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s.

“142” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Akets.

“147” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Allen (also known as George Parker).

16 [agent - source sixteen] (GRU line) [source Venona]

“17” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Noel Field, mid-1930s.

“18” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet source/agent, 1930s. Also known as “John”. “18”/“John’s” activities suggest John Spivak as a likely candidate.

19 [agent - source nineteen]  =  unidentified, meets with FDR, Churchill, Hopkins at Trident conference (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] 

“19” [agent - source nineteen]: Harry Hopkins at Trident conference [source Mark “Venona’s Source 19”][15] Mark also discusses Lord Beaverbook as a weak candidate for 19.

“19” [agent - source nineteen]: Eduard Benes at Trident conference [source West Venona]

“19” [agent - source nineteen]: Laurence Duggan in mid-1930s [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“19” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Laurence Duggan starting in 1935, and appearing as Duggan as late as August 1944.  In the Venona decryptions “19” appears as an unidentified source of diplomatic information in a 1943 report from Iskhak Akhmerov.  Andrew and Mitrokhin identified “19” as Duggan.[16]

“22” [agent - source twenty-two]: Cover name no. 22 twenty-two  =  Hogman, Captain.  OSS (GRU line) [source Venona]

“24” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1937.

“29” [agent - source twenty-nine ] =  unidentified (1941 KGB) [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

“65” [agent - source sixty-five] (GRU line) [source Venona]

8th Department: address for informational (non-operational) cables (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

 

XXA

 

A. [aa]: unidentified , courier (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

A. [aa]: Initial for unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

A [“A” aa] Technique  =  manufacture and provision of false papers (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

A Group: Section of KGB in 1947 described as dealing with violent tasks.

A. [aa](initial): for Anglia, i.e. England in Russian.

A Line: document forgery (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

A. Serov (ship) [source Venona]

A. Sovorov (ship) [source Venona]

A-20 (U.S. aircraft)

“A/214” [a214](cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Marianov.

AAC: Army Air Corps, U.S.

AAF: Army Air Force, U.S.

Aarons, L.A.: Described as Treasury Department representatives in London, 1944.  Possibly an error for Lehman C. Aarons, Treasury Department assistant general counsel.

Abakumov, Viktor Semenovich: Senior KGB officer.

Abbiate, Rolan: Vladimir Pravdin: Sergei [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Abel, ?: KGB agent slated for infiltration into Germany via the battle front, late 1941.

Abel, Rudolph: pseudonym for William Fisher

Abner Nas (ship) [source Venona]

“Abraham” (unidentified name): (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Abram” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Jack Soble prior to September 1944 (with occasional use thereafter into the 1950s).  “Abram” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Soble.[17]

“Abram” (cover name): Soble, Jack (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Abramov, ?: Described as Comintern official and an “enemy of the people”.  Likely Jacob Mirov-Abramov, former chief of Comintern OMS executed in 1937 in Stalin’s Terror.

Abramov, Leonid Dmitrievich in U.S. from May 1940 to 31 July 1944,: Artek  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Abramovich, Rafael, president of Russian Social Democrats. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Abramov-Mirov, Jacob: Variant name in the literature for Jacob Mirov-Abramov.

Abrams, director of Interchemical Corporation,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Abramvo, Aleksandr Stepanovich: “Demid” or “Demidov”

Abt, John, misspelled Amt (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Abt, John, probably Moris ( possibly Morris? ) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Abt, John: Soviet intelligence contact/informant.  Labor lawyers and secret CPUSA member.  Identified by Chambers as a member of the original “Ware group” covert CPUSA unit.  On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks.  Brother of Marion Bachrach. Elizabeth Bentley identified Abt as having been the link between the Perlo espionage group and Earl Browder before she took over its supervision.  Abt appeared in a Venona decryption under his real name in connection with Bentley’s takeover of the Perlo group, although his name was misspelled as “Amt”.  It also appears in the notebooks with the misspelling “Ant” as well as correctly spelled as “Abt”.[18] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bat”.

“Academic” [Akademich] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): A 1948 cover name with unclear meaning, possibly Communist activity or espionage work.

Academic Council of the Joint Institute on Nuclear Research.

Academy of Sciences

Accion Catolica (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Accion Nacional (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Acheson, Dean (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Achievement ” (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Achievement” (cover name): KGB operation involving Mexico, probably attempt to gain release of Trotsky’s assassin. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Achilles” (cover name): unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

“Achilles” [Akhill] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Karl Dunts.

“Acorn” (cover name): Taylor, William H. [source West Venona]

“Acorn” (cover name): Gold, Bela (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] 

“Acorn” [Zholud'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bela (William) Gold.  “Acorn” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Gold.[19]

ACP: American Communist Party.

“Acquaintance” (Znakomyj) (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Active measures (tradecraft term): Aktivakhi – aktivnye meropriyatiya.  Described actions taken to plant disinformation in the mainstream press and media via ostensibly non-Communist or neutral sources.

“Actor” [Akter] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Member of the Socialist Party, source on Trotskyist movement in 1937, visited Trotsky in Mexico.

“Ada” (cover name): Zenejdas Gomez, Adelina [possibly an early error for Kitty Harris?] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Ada” (cover name): Harris, Kitty (KGB U.S. & Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Ada” (cover name): Kitty Harris from 1938+ [source Damaskin Harris]

“Ada” (cover name): Lowry, Helen  [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Adam” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Eva Getsov.  (Alternative translations: Getzov, Getzoff)  “Adam” was identified in the Venona decryptions for 1944 and 1945 messages as Rebecca Getzoff.[20]  While it seems likely, it is not firmly established that Eva Getsov and Rebecca Getzoff are the same person.  “Adam” as a cover name for “Eva” Getzov looks like a KGB play on words (“Adam” and “Eve”).

“Adam” (cover name): Rebecca Getzoff  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Adam” (cover name): Shiskin, Mikhail F. (U.K. line) [source West Venona]

Adams” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet agent, referred to as a liaison/courier agent in 1942.  Likely a garble for “Adam”.

Adams, Arthur: Soviet intelligence officer, GRU.

Adams, James Truslow: Well-known American historian to whom Josephine Truslow Adams claimed family connections.

Adams, Josephine Truslow: Secret Communist, occasional correspondent with Eleanor Roosevelt who fraudulently presented herself to Earl Browder as an intimate friend of Eleanor and Franklin Roosevelt. 

Adams, W.W. Astronomer, Pasadena (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Addis, Thomas: Physician at Stanford Medical School and a CPUSA activist.

“Aden” (cover name): source of the Volunteers network [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Aden” (cover name): unidentifed source at Hanford recruited by Ted Hall, married to Anta [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell]

“Adjutant” [Ad''yutant] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Herbert Gaston, circa 1944.

ADL: Anti-Defamation League

Adler” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent/officer Berlin, 1950.

“Adler” (cover name): (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Adler, Andrew H.: Writer for Film Daily.

Adler, Friedrich  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Adler, Solomon: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Treasury Department official and Soviet intelligence source/agent.  On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks.  Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group.[21]  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Hello” (prior to 1941), “Sachs” (1941-1945).

ADN: Allgemeiner Deutscher Nachrichtendienst (General German News Service) state news agency for the German Democratic Republic.

Advokat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Attorney”.

“Advokat” (“Lawyer”) (cover name): Hiss, Alger [source Chambers Witness]

Ad''yutant” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Adjutant”.                                 

“Aesculapius” [Eskulap] (cover name): unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

Af.: Possibly the Soviet intelligence officer Boris Morris identified as Afanasy Efimov.

Afanasev, Major (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Afanasev (on ship Litke): Chuzhin, Ivan Afanasevich  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Afanasev, Viktor Vasilevich, director of the fifth line for the West Coast, 1945: Sergej [Sergey]  in 1945   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Africa” (cover name): Maria de la Sierra [Fisher network, KGB post WWII] [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

Agabekov, Grigory: Defecting OGPU officer who published Ch. K. za rabotoi [The Cheka at Work] in 1931.  The name sometimes appears in English as Georges or Georgy Agabekov.[22]

Agayant, I.: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center.

Ageev, Aleksej [Aleksey] Prokhorovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Ager, ?: Described as director of Jack Soble’s factory near Paris, 1952.

“Agnes” [Agnessoy] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. References to in 1948.

Agnessoy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Agnes”.

Agranov, Yakov Samuilovich: Senior KGB officer who supervised key parts of Stalin’s Terror who was himself executed in 1938.

Agricultural Adjustment Administrations, U.S. (AAA).

Agricultural Commission in NY: Likely a reference to a CPUSA committee that dealt with agricultural policy matters.

Agriculture, Department of, U.S.

Aguilar, Attorney General (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Aguirre, Francisco (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Aguirre, Osmin Col., provisional president of El Salvador (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Agwi Prince (ship) [source Venona]

Aida” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, prior to September 1944.  Likely Esther Trebach Rand.  “Aida” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Rand.[23]

“Aida” (cover name): Kitty Harris [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

“Aida” (cover name): (also  “Klo” (cover name)): Esther Trebach Rand  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Aileron” (cover name): “Eleron” (cover name): Silverman, Abraham George (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Aileron” [Eleron] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Abraham George Silverman.  “Aileron” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Abraham George Silverman.[24]

“Air” [Vozdukh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Espionage project targeting jet engines and jet propelled aircraft.

Aiva” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1950 on Mid-East / Israeli matters.

“Akademich” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Academic”.

Akets, William: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Described as reserve lieutenant of Army Intelligence Corps, early 1930s.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “142” (“Sh-142”).

“Akhil” (cover name): “Achilles” (cover name): unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

Akhill” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Achilles”.

Akhmed” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, cover name Thrush prior to September 1944.  “Akhmed” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[25] 

“Akhmed” (cover name): Thrush” (cover name): Dozd” (cover name): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Akhmerov, Iskhak: names William Greinke, Michael Adamec and Michael Green. [source Damaskin Harris] 

Akhmerov, Iskhak: “Yung” in 1930s in U.S.,: “Albert” in WWII [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Akhmerov, Iskhak: Bill: Bill Grenke [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

Akhmerov, Iskhak Abdulovich: KGB illegal officer.  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Jung” (1930s), “Mer” (1942-1944), “Albert” (starting August 1944), “Gold” (not used in the U.S. but used in a KGB book about Akhmerov that described some of his American activities).  Pseudonyms Bill, Will, Michael Green, Alexander Hansen, Karl.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence officer.[26]

Akhmerov, Iskhak Abdulovich: “Mer” “Mayor” and “Albert”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Akhmerov, Itzhak: “Yung” (1934), Bill (to Chambers), “Mer”, “Albert”, Michael Green [multiple sources]

Akhmerova, ?: See Lowry, Helen.

“Akim” (cover name): Sergej [Sergey] Grigorevich Lukianov [Lukyanov].   KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Akkord” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Chord”.

Akr” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as working in the same section of OSS as Donald Wheeler in 1945.  In 1948 described as involved in “(private public relations and scientific book publishing company)”. Also appears as “Akra”.

Akra” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Akr”. 

Aksenov, N. IA.: Soviet intelligence officer.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Semen” in 1954.

Akta” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Angela Tuckett.  References to in 1950.  Contact of Klaus Fuchs in Britain, early 1940s.

Akter” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Actor”.

Aktivakhi (tradecraft term): See Active measures.

Akulin, NGRU, Washington: unidentified name eighty-three, #83 (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Akulov, Ivan: KGB officer, Moscow Center.

Al” (cover name or work name): possibily Alexander Korotkov.

“Al” (cover name): Anatoly Veniaminovich Gorsky (aka Anatoly Borisovich Gromov) [source Bentley FBI statement]

“Al” (cover name): in 596 KGB NY to Moscow, 1944, possibly Juan Garcia Reyes or Erich Lapins  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Alafuzov, Rear-Admiral V. A. (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Alan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mikhail Korneev, KGB officer.

“Alan” (cover name): Bowen, Ralph, U.S. State Dept. and YCL (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Alan” (cover name): unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Alba, Duke of: Jacobo Maria del Pilar Carlos Manuel Fitz-James Stuart.  A Spanish monarchist who represented Franco’s government in London in WWII but who had a uneasy relationship with General Franco.

Albam, Jacob: KGB officer/agent. Part of the Soble network.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Belov”. 

Albarda, John Willem, of Dutch SDLP  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Albert” [Al'bert] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov beginning in August 1944, replacing “Mer”.  “Albert” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Akhmerov.[27]  “Albert” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Akhmerov.

Al'bert” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Albert”.

“Albert” (cover name): Akhmerov, I. A.  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]   [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Albert” [Al'bert] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified New York Police source of 10 / “Leo”.  Judged by KGB to be a fake source.  References to in 1934.

Albuquerque, NM: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sernovodsk”.

Alco company.  Described as a company producing perfumes.

Al-drich (garbled name): Described as a State Department official in the “Trade Division” in 1938, possibly a garble for the name Aldrich.

Aldrich: see Al-drich.

“Alek” (cover name): Allan Nunn May, Canadian line, (codenamed Primrose by British security) [source West Venona]

Aleksandr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Alexander”.

“Aleksandr” (cover name): unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Aleksandr Nevskij (ship) [source Venona]

“Aleksandrov” (cover name): unidentified cover name, possibly used in White emigre work (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Aleksandrov, Petr Vsevolodovich: Friend of “Negro” and V.S. Rykov.

“Aleksandrov’s” daughter: unidentified cover name, considered for use against FBI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Aleksandrova: Daughter of the sister of Varvara Hamer.

Alekseev, Bella (Bela?) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Alekseev, Vasilij [Vasily]  Mikhailovich: Znamenskij (on Soviet ship)

Alekseeva, Lyudmila Nikolaevna: “Osa” or  “Wasp” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Aleksei” [“Aleksey”]  Anatoly Antonovich Yakovlev [Anatoly A. Yatskov]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Aleksei: See Aleksey

Aleksej: See Aleksey

Aleksey” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Anatoly Antonovich Yatskov (also used the pseudonym Anatoly Antonovich Yakovlev).  (Alternative translation: Aleksej, Alexey, Alexsei)   “Aleksey” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Yatskov/Yakovlev.

Aleksey" (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer Moscow center, 1937.

“Aleksey Afanasyevich” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB liaison with Armand V. Hammer in the USSR, 1953.

Aleksey see Alexsey

Ales” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence (GRU) source, 1945.  Alger Hiss.  “Ales” was identified in the Venona decryptions as likely Alger Hiss.[28]

“Ales” (cover name): Hiss, Alger (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Ales” (cover name): Hiss, Alger [Mark “Venona’s’ ‘Ales’”][29]

Aleut (ship) [source Venona]

“Alex” (cover name): Belyaev, A.I., Major General, Chairman of the SPPC in DC [source Venona]

“Alex” (cover name): unidentified, GRU, probably Belyaev [source Venona]

“Alex: Work name  Name by which Julius Rosenberg knew Alexander Feklisov.

“Alexander” [Aleksandr] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Leopol Arenal.  “Alexander” appears in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified cover name associated with Central and South American matters and, and Arenal would be a candidate for this Alexander.[30]

“Alexander” [Aleksandr] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Boris Vinogradov.

“Alexander” (cover name): Barch” (cover name): Kremer, Simon (U.K. line) [source Venona]

“Alexander” (cover name): Kremer, Semyon Davidovich, a GRU officer in U.K. and Fuchs controller [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Alexander, ?: Described as a senior U.S. State Department official, 1939.

Alexander, Albert V.: Minister of Defense in the postwar British Labour government.

“Alexander (Aleksandr)” (cover name): unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Alexander, James  [source Venona}

“Alexandrov” (“Aleksandrov”)” (cover name): unidentified cover name, possibly used in White emigre work (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Alexandrov’s” (“Aleksandrov’s”) daughter” (cover name): unidentified cover name, considered for use against FBI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Alexei: See Aleksey.

“Alexey” (cover name): Yatskov aka Yakovlev [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Alexey: See Aleksey.

Alexis, Patriarch (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Algazi, Olga: Described as ghost writer for Cardinal Spellman.

Ali” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Portnov.

Alikhashkina, Aleksandr Egorovna, Soviet at Plant (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Aliksij, Archbishop: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Alim” (cover name): U.S. Ambassador to Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

All Union Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries: VOLKS Vsesoyuznoe Obshchestovo Dlya Kulturnoj Svyazi s Zabranitsej (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

All-Agency Committee on Post-War Plans: Not clear what specific U.S. agency is being referenced.  There were a variety of ‘committees on post-war plans’ created with similar names.

Allakhverdov, ?: KGB officer, Moscow Center, 1944.

Allen” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Legal KGB 1945 London, possibly Vladimir Barkovsky.

Allen” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer 1953.

Allen, George: Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, 1948.

“Allen” in Moscow [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

Allen, James S.: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  CPUSA cadre and journalist.  James S. Allen was the adopted name of Solomon Auerbach.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Jack”.

Allen, Robert Sharon.: Soviet intelligence source.  Well known journalist in Washington, 1930s-50s.  Also known as George Parker. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “147”,  “Sh-147”.

Allied Military Occupation Administration

Allo” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hello”.

All-Union Association of the Oil and Gas Industry (Soyuzneft): Soviet agency.

All-Union Society for Cultural Relations (VOKS): Soviet agency that oversaw international cultural contacts and exchanges.

“Alma” (cover name): Levanas, Leo (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Alma Ata (ship)

ALP: American Labor party.

Alphand, Charles: French ambassador to the USSR, 1930s.

“Alpinists” [Al'pinisty] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Americans, post WWII.

Al'pinisty” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Alpinists”. (Alternative translation: Mountain Climbers)

Alsberg, Henry: American writer and prominent left-liberal, 1920s and 1930s.

Alsop, Joseph: Influential journalist and columnist.

Altman, Israel: Morris Cohen [Relevant document in THE SECRET WORLD]

Altman: see Boris Bukov.

Altshuler, Lydia: Lydia (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Alvensleben, Werner von: German businessman and conservative political figure, 1920s.

Amderutra: Amtorg’s shipping and dispatch office.

Amer. Code Division: A 1950 reference, likely to the Armed Forces Security Agency, chief American cryptologic agency and predecessor to the National Security Agency.

Amer. Comparty: American Communist Party.

Amerasia: Left-wing journal involved in theft of classified U.S. government documents in 1945.[31]

America: magazine.

America First Committee

“American” [Amerikanets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ruth Boerger.

American Automobile Association

American Bureau of Investigation: Error for Federal Bureau of Investigation.

American Christian Union.

American Committee of Jewish Writers, Artists and Scientists

American Labor Party (ALP): Liberal-left ‘third’ party in New York, under covert Communist control by early 1940s.

American Labour Party: see American Labor Party.

American League Against War and Fascism: Communist controlled Popular Front body, 1930s.

American Lurgy Corporation: Described as front for German intelligence.

American Military Government of Occupied Territories: AMGOT.

American Packer (ship) [source Venona]

American Relief Administration: American private charity organized by Herbert Hoover to relieve the famine in Soviet Russia, 1921-1923.

American Rubber Corporation.

American Schering Co.: Medical/pharmaceuticals firm.

American-Russian Trade and Engineering Consultants (Amrusco): a firm run by Vasily Delgass and his associates.

Americans (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): “Townsmen”, “Townspeople”, circa 1944. “Alpinists”, post-WWII and “Brumians”, 1950.

Americans for Haganah.

Americo Almeida, Jose (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

Amerikanets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “American”.

Amerikanskaya Tekhnika: Amtorg publication.

Amerikantsev (ship),

Ames, Edward: American diplomat, U.S. Embassy in Moscow, 1942-1945.  Married to Russian Varvara Vassilievna Evstratova.

AMGOT: American Military Government of Occupied Territories.

Ami” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Joseph Davies, circa 1944.

Amigo” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, likely Alfred Tanz. 

Amkino: Soviet agency that distributed Soviet motion picture films in the United States.  Succeeded by Artkino Pictures, Inc.

Amkniga: Official book-distributing agency in the U.S. for the Soviet state publishing house.

Amminger, ?: Described as a Reichswehr office who died in the USSR circa 1930.

“Amor” (cover name): Nelken Mansberger de Paul, Margarita (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Amper” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): See “Ampere”.

“Ampere” (cover name): redacted [“Ampere” changed to “Roy”] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona].

“Ampere” [Amper] (cover name in the Venona decryptions): “Ampere” does not occur in Vassiliev’s notebooks but is in the Venona decryptions.  Venona indicates “Ampere” was married to “Cora”, “Cora” is identified in Vassiliev’s notebooks as Emma Phillips, consequently, “Ampere” was Emma Phillips’ husband.[32]

Amrusco: American-Russian Trade and Engineering Consultants.

Amsterdam Conference: Organized by S. J. Rutgers on instructions of the Comintern to assist in coordination the new Western European Communist parties. 

Amsterdam-Pleyel movement: Press and informal term for the World Committee for the Fight Against Imperialist War and Fascism that met first in Amsterdam and later issued a major appeal from the Salle Pleyel in Paris.

Amt: misspelling of Abt, John J. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Amtorg: Amerikanskaia torgovaia kompaniia – American Trading Company: Soviet import-export agency in the United States.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Factory”.

Amur” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cupid”.

“Amur” (cover name), changed to “Cupid” (cover name) changed to “Zhannet”  / “Jeannette”  unidentified   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Amur” (cover name): Robert Sheldon Harte [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

A.N.: Akademia Nauk: Academy of Sciences.

AN USSR: Akademia Nauk: Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

AN/APN-12: American military airborne interrogation and rendezvous device.

AN/APS-1: American military airborne radar searching, mapping and bombing device.

AN/APS-12: American military airborne fire control radar.

AN/APS-2: American military radar bombsight.

Anatoli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Anatoly”.

“Anatoly” [Anatoli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer/agent Berlin 1950.

“Anchor” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

AN/CPQ-1: American military radar proximity fuse.

AN-CRT-4: American military radio transmitting equipment.

Anderson, ?: FBI source claimed by Samuel Dickstein in 1939.

Anderson, C.D., physicist Pasadena (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Anderson, Clinton, secretary of Agriculture  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Anderson, H.L.: Senior scientist involved with construction of the first nuclear reactor at the Manhattan atomic project facility at the University of Chicago.

Andi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Andy”.

“Andreev” (cover name): unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Andreev: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Andrey: see Andrey

“Andrej” [“Andrey”] (cover name): unidentified in Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Andrej” [“Andrey”] (cover name): unidentified in New York (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Andrews, Bert: Washington reporter.

Andrey” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed KGB officer/agent.  References to in 1934.

“Andrey” (cover name): Byelorussian or Polish emigrant in OSS working for KGB [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

“Andy” [Andi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified outgoing GRU station chief 1945.

An...el or Ans...el: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Angel” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Tamara Ullman-Pogorelskaya.

“Angelitas” (cover name): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Anglo-Persian Oil.

“Angora” [Angore] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): United States of America, 1930s.

Angore” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Angora”.

Anikeev, Lt. Nicholas Michael, U.S. Navy interpreter (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Anikiyev, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.

Anilobyednineniye: State Association of Aniline and Ink Factories.

“Anisimov” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Anita ” (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Anita” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Anita” (cover name): unidentified cover name (U.K. line) [source West Venona]

Anna” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence agent, a Volga German trained for dropping behind German lines in the USSR in 1941.

“Anna” (cover name): Margaret Browder [source Damaskin Harris]

“Announcer” [Diktor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Donovan.

“Announcer (radio-announcer) = William Donovan

Ant” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mrs. Kristel Fuchs Heineman.  “Ant” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kristel Fuchs Heineman.

“Ant” (cover name): Heineman, Kristal Fuchs, sister of Klaus Fuchs  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Ant, John: Misspelling for John Abt.

“Anta” (cover name): unidentifed source at Hanford recruited by Ted Hall, married to “Aden” [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell]

“Antelope” code name for radar source New York KGB [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Antenna” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Julius Rosenberg prior to September 1944.  “Antenna” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Julius Rosenberg.[33]

“Antenna” (cover name): Julius Rosenberg (KGB U.S. line) [source Feklisov ]

“Antenna” (cover name): Julius Rosenberg (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Anthony (Given name used as a cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Likely Anthony Blunt.  U.K. cover name of KGB agent/contact with relationship to Michael Straight, 1937-1939. 

“Antic, Anti   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Antic’, Ante Anton [source Venona]

Anti-Defamation League: (organization, institution).  Ameican Jewish organization.

Anti-Trust Division, U.S. Department of Justice.

Anton” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Leonid Kvasnikov, KGB officer.  “Anton” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kvasnikov.

“Anton” (cover name): Francisco Anton (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Anton” (cover name): Garcia Reyes, Jose (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Anton” (cover name): Leonid Kvasnikov, engineer with Amtorg  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Anton” (cover name): Leonid R. Kvasnikov [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

“Anton” (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Anton (Pav)” (cover name): in 596 KGB NY to Moscow, 1944, possibly Juan Reyes or Erich Lapins (Anton may be Mexico City cover name and Pav is his NY cover name)  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Antonoff, N. C.: See N.C. Antonov.

“Antonov  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Antonov, N.C.: Former employee of Amtrog oil department, 1930.  Also known as N.C. Antonoff.

Anwar, Mohammed [RTsKhIDNI document on him] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Anya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified international courier for illegal station, 30s.  References to in 1934, 1938.

AOMOS or A.O.M.O.S.: Administrative Department of the Militia of Moscow Oblast.

Apor, Baron Gavor  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Apparatus” (cover name): apparat” (cover name): unidentified, may just be KGB jargon (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Apresyan, Stepan: Mai [source Feklisov ]

Apresyan, Stepan Zakharovich: Soviet intelligence officer.  Acting chief of KGB station in New York in 1944 and chief of the San Francisco station in 1945.  Apresyan was identified in the Venona decryptions as a KGB officer with the cover name “May”.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “May”.

Apresyan, Stepan Zakharovich Soviet Vice-Consul N.Y. February 44 to March 45: Maj [May]

Apresyana, Aleksandra Grigorevna: Zoya  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Apriyevsky, Petr: member of the USSR Osoaviakhim, 1932.

“Apteka” (cover name): Drugstore” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

ARA: American Relief Administration

Aragon, Louis: French poet and Communist.

Aralov, Simon I.: Senior GRU officer, 1920s, 1930s. 

Arancibia Laso, Hector (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Arch” [Duga] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Frank Ullman.

Archibald, E.W.: Described as an official of the State Department.  Suspected of being a fake name in a fraudulent document.

“Archimedes” [Arkhimed] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer in U.S., 1935.

Arcos: Soviet foreign trade agency in the United Kingdom.

Arcos-America: predecessor to Amtorg.

Arena” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Gerald Graze, 1943-1945.[34] 

“Arena” (cover name): Mary Wolfe Price  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Arenal, Captain Alberto  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Arenal, Leopol [Leopolo]: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Mexican Communist.  Leopol Arenal helped to organize and participated in an armed assault on the Mexican home of Leon Trotsky, the exiled Soviet leader, in 1940.  Elizabeth Bentley identified Leopol Arenal as one of Jacob Golos’s secret correspondence through a mail drop via his sister-in-law Rose Arenal. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Alexander”.[35]

Arenal, Luis: Rafail  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Arenal, Rose: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Elizabeth Bentley identified Rose Arenal as a mail drop used by Jacob Golos to remain in contact with covert American and Mexican Communist in Mexico, chiefly engaged in anti-Trotsky operations.[36] 

“Arfar” (cover name): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Argentina: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Rio”

Argo” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ernest Hemingway.

Argun (ship) [source Venona]

“Aristides” (cover name): unidentified, Argentinian, 30 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Arkady” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, Vienna KGB station, 1954. 

Arkhangelsk  (ship) [source Venona]

Arkhimed” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Archimedes”.

Arkhip” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer, 1934, likely in Berlin.

Arktika (ship)

“Arkus” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Arma Engineering: Machine and tool company in New York.

Armasha: Diminutive form of Armand.

“Armor” (cover name): Bronya” (cover name): redacted employee at Bell Aircraft, Buffalo. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Armor” [Bronya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harold Smeltzer starting in October 1944. A technical intelligence source at Bell aircraft. References to in 1945.  “Armor” (earlier “Stamp”) was identified in the Venona decryptions as a redacted name for a source at Bell Aircraft in New York.[37]

Armour, Lester (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Armour, U.S. Ambassador  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Army General Staff: unrecovered (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Army Security Agency, U.S.: Chief U.S. cryptologic service. Successor to Army Signals Intelligence Service and predecessor to the National Security Agency.

Arnall, Ellis: Democratic Governor of Georgia, 1943-1947.

Arnaud: see Arno

Arnautov, Victor Michael (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Arno” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Gold, October 1944  to 1950.  “Arno” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Harry Gold.[38]

“Arno” (cover name): Harry Gold after May 1944 [source Feklisov]

“Arno” (cover name) (also translated as “Arnaud” and “Arnold”: Harry Gold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Arnol'd” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): See “Arnold”.

“Arnold” (cover name): “Arnol” (cover name): Fakir” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Arnold” [Arnol'd] (cover name in the Venona decryptions): Andrew Steiger.  “Arnold” does not appear in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks but “Fakir” appears as is identified as Andrew Steiger.  In the Venona decryptions, “Fakir” was unidentified but indicates that the cover name was changed to “Arno” in October 1944.[39]

Aronberg, Mrs. Philip (real name).

Aronberg, Philip: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Veteran CPUSA cadre.   GRU agent Nicholas Dozenberg stated that he had recruited Philip Aronberg for GRU assignments and a 1942 KGB document in the Comintern archives indicates he had a connection with KGB.[40]

Aronoff, Edwin: Described as a lawyer and secret Communist whom Browder consulted in 1945.

Aronovich, ??: Described as an employee in the visa section of the American embassy in Paris.  

“Arrow” (cover name): Strela” (cover name): unidentified cover name [linked to Carpatho-Russians]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Arrow: See Strela.

Arsen” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Communist, technical intelligence 1942.  Associated with Julius Rosenberg.

Arsenal” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. War Department.  “Arsenal” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the U.S. War Department.

“Arsenij” [“Arseny”] (cover name): “Arsenius”: Andrej [Andrey] Ivanovich Shevchenko, Soviet representative at Bell Aircraft  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Arseny” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer.  “Arseny” was identified in the Venona decryptions as KGB officer Andrey Ivanovich Shevchenko.  Shevchenko may be the pseudonym used the in the U.S. by KGB officer Andrey Ivanovich Raina.

Art” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Koral beginning in September 1944.  “Art” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Helen Koral.[41]

“Art” (cover name): Koral, Helen [Aleksander Koral in one note] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Artek” (cover name): Abramov, Leonid Dmitrievich  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Artem” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): A. Slavyagin, KGB officer.  “Artem” was identified in the Venona decryptions as likely the cover name of either G. N. Ogloblin or M.N. Khvostov, two young Soviet diplomatic staff.  Those latter two names may be pseudonyms, and A. Slavyagin identified in Vassiliev’s notebooks as “Artem” may be the real name of one of the former.

“Artem” (cover name): Artonius” (cover name): Soviet KGB students: G. N. Ogloblin or M.N. Khvostov  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Artemenko, Kozma Petrovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Artemis” (cover name): KGB INO hq [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

“Arthur” (cover name): Artur” (cover name): Iosif Grigulevich [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

“Arthur” (cover name): Bisson, Thomas Arthur [BEW, IPR]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Arthur” (cover name): Bisson, Thomas Arthur (GRU line) [source Venona]

“Arthur” (cover name): see Artur

“Arthur” See “Artur

Arthur: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Artiksnab: Unidentified Soviet agency, 1933.

“Artist” [Khudozhnik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Described as Jacob Golos’s source at McClure’s Newspaper syndicate in 1939. Likely Elizabeth Bentley.

Artkino Pictures, Inc.: Soviet agency that distributed Soviet motion picture films in the United States.  Successor to Amkino.

Artur” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Illegal operating in Mexico, 1941-1943, with “Express Messenger” as one of his couriers.  Likely Iosif R. Grigulevich.  References to in 1944 and 1947.  (Alternative translation: Arthur)  “Artur”) was identified in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified KGB officer in Central and Sourth America and is linked to “Express Messenger. “   Grigulevich is identified with the cover name “Arthur” in the early 1940s when operating in Central and South America in Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield and the Schecters, Sacred Secrets.  Robert Louis Benson also concluded that the unidentified “Artur” cover name in the Venona decryptions on several South American communications lines was Grigulevich.[42]

“Artur” (cover name): (Arthur)  Grigulivich, Iosif  in South America in WWII, (probably Venona Artur: Arthur) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Artur” (cover name): Arthur” (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Artur” (cover name): Arthur  unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Artur” (cover name): unidentified [U.K. line GRU] [source Venona]

Artuzov, Artur Khristyanovich: Chief of INO OGPU, 1931-1935.  Executed in Stalin’s Terror, 1937.

Arunah Abel  (ship) [source Venona]

Aseev, Major Pavel Nikolaevich, Assistant Military Attache, DC [source Venona]

Ashkhabad (ship) [source Venona]

Asimow, Morris: source  metallurgist for Carnegie Illinois Steel for Chambers and Bykov network.[43]

Asimow, Morris: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Asimow told the FBI that in the mid-1930s he was a metallurgist for Carnegie Illinois Steel, a Chicago subsidiary of U.S. Steel, and he covertly furnished Soviet agent William Crane with formula for making steel alloys.[44]  Whittaker Chambers, without providing a name, noted that Boris Bykov’s network included an industrial spy at the laboratory of a Chicago steel firm.  However, Chambers did identify William Crane as part of his and Bykov’s apparatus.  The FBI interviewed Crane, he cooperated in part, and that let the FBI to Morris Asimow.  See Azizov, Harry.

Asmussar (ship) [source Venona]

Aspirant” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Graduate Student.”

Assembly of International Student Organizations: Unclear what organization is referenced.

ASSR: Avtonomnaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika — Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. 

“Aster” (cover name): Astra” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Astrologer” [“Zvesdochet”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See T. Keith Glennan.

“Ataman” (cover name): Boleslaw K. Gebert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Ataman” (cover name): Pavlyuchenko  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Atherton, Ray: State Department official, 1944.

“Athlete” [Atlet] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Agent or source circa 1948-49.

“Atkins: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Atlet” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Athlete”.

“Atom” (cover name): unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 ?? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. (AEC).

Attila” (cover name in Venona): Likely Linn Farish.

“Attila” (cover name): Farish, Linn Markley,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Attlee, Clement: British Labour Party leader and Prime Minister in 1945.

“Attorney” [Advokat] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, late 20s and deactivated early 30s.

Attwood, Stephen S., Professor Wave Propagation Group, division of War Research Columbia University (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Aubry, Jacques  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Auchincloss, Gordon (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Auchincloss, John (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Aufha?user, Siegfried: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Augur” (cover name): Avgur” (cover name): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“August” [Avgust] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer.  Likely Gavriil Panchenko.  “August” is described as Julius Rosenberg’s KGB control officer in the late 1940s.  Alexander Feklisov identifies Rosenberg’s case officer as Gabriel (Gavriil) Panchenko.[45]

“Australian Woman” (cover name): Mitynen, Francia Yakilnila aka Patterson, Edna Margaret (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Austria: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Zoniya”, 1950.

“Author” [Avtor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1939-1941.  Likely Corliss Lamont.  Author in 1939-41 was described as “a millionaire.  Chairman of the Society of Friends of the Sov. Union.  Recruited in Moscow”. Corliss Lamont was a millionaire, chairman of the Society of Friends of the Soviet Union, and had visited Moscow. 

“Author” [Avtor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Vladimir Borisovich Morkovin in 1945.  “Author” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Morkovin.

Avanesov, V.  (ship)

Avangard” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Vanguard”.

Avdeyev, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.

Averescu, Alexander, Field Marshal, Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Avgust” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “August”.

Avia Corporation.

Aviakhim: Soviet volunteer society that promoted aviation and chemical industries.  Later merged with a military civil defense organizatin, Oso, to form a broad civil defense organization – Osoavikhim.

Aviator” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent reporting to the KGR San Francisco station, 1943.  Context suggests a Soviet with some official Soviet connection.

Avinavitsky, ?: Red Army general, chief of the War Academy of Chemical Defense in the 1930s, executed in Stalin’s Terror.

Avtodor: Early Soviet society promoting automobiles and roads.

Avtor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Author”.

“Avtor” (cover name): Author” (cover name): Morkovin, Vladimir Borisovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Azerbaijan: Soviet tanker ship.

Azerbajdzhan, ship  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Azizov, Harry: Described as a former employee of a steel-smelting company in Chicago.   A December 1948 Gorsky memo Chambers/Karl’s group name.[46]  Chambers in Witness did not discuss a Harry Azizov.  However, see Asimow, Morris.   Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “116th”.

Azneft: Soviet oil industry agency.

 

XXB

 

B.: initial of redacted employee at Republic Aviation (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

B.: Initial of an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in Mexico in 1950.

B. (initial of a real name in the Venona decryptions): See Joseph Bauer.

B-25J (U.S. aircraft)

B-29 (U.S. aircraft)

Bab” and Bab’s wife (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agents, references to in 1950. 

Bab” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Described as “A senator, vice chairman of the Senate Finance Committee.  Visited the USSR”.  References to in 1933 as having been a circa-1928 contact via an questionable agent.  Likely Senator William H. King (D. Utah), who visited the USSR in 1923 and in 1933 was the ranking majority member of the Senate Finance Committee.  The Senate Finance Committee, like other Senate committee, did not have a “vice-chairman”, but the ranking majority member was the second ranking position after the chairman. (Alternative translation: Bob).

Bab” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): described in 1934 as employed by the International Press Division of DOS.  (Alternative translation: Bob).

Babanov, Captain [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

Babcock, E.B. biologist, CA,

Babievskij (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Babin in Moscow [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

Babin, Thomas: Brem (GRU line and KGB Line) [source Venona]

Babushkov, Soviet aviation worker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Babylon” San Francisco  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Babylon” [Vavilon] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): San Francisco 

“Bachelor” [Kholostoy] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1934.  Described as technical source recruited in Germany, stopped cooperating in U.S.

Bachrach, Marion: Soviet intelligence source.  Secret Communist, John Abt’s sister.   Secretary to one term (1937-1938) U.S. Representative from Minnesota John Bernard, a Farmer-Labor Party member aligned with the CPUSA (he formally joined the CPUSA later in his life). On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. KGB sent the Comintern a vetting inquity about her in 1942, and received a positive report.[47]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Reyna”. 

“Back Street” [Zakoulok] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): British Foreign Office.

Badger, E.B., and Sons: Major American construction company.

Badigin, Captain (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Bagayev, ?: Described as an employee fired from Amtrog, 1930. 

Bagdatiev, Sergey: Bolshevik leader of Armenian background.

Bagratovich, Arutyunov Nikolaj [Nikolay]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bailey, H.: Described as head of United Press in 1944.

Bailey, Josiah, Senator (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bain, G.W. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Baird, Joseph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bak” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): David Weintraub.

Baker, Nicholas: Pseudonym used by Niels Bohr when visiting the Manhattan atomic project.

Baker, Oliver Edwin: leading authority agricultural geography, USDA.

Baker, Rudy: Senior CPUSA cadre and head of its covert arm from 1938 until the end of WWII.  Baker appears in the Venona decryptions under his Comintern cover name of  Son” [Syn] and is a likely candidate for the cover name Rudy” [Rudi] in the GRU line.[48]  Candidate for the cover name “Rudy”. 

Bakhmetyev, Boris Alexandrovich: Ambassador to the United States of the Russian Provisional government, engineer and philanthropist.

Baklanov: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bal..”. , possibly “Balloon”: Atomic bomb (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Balakirev, Mily A.: Russian composer.

Balamut, ?: Golos recommended for recruitment on technical line in 1942.

Balasy, Antal, a Hungarian diplomat,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bald Mountain” [Lysaya Gora] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): The project to investigate/cultivate Time magazine and its staff as an private intelligence agency that could be infiltrated and used as a source.

Baldwin, Calvin. B.: Assistant chair of CIO-PAC and former administrator of Farm Security Administration.  Secret Communist.[49]

Baldwin, Calvin Benham Beanie  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Baldwin, military correspondent of NYT [source Venona]

Baldwin, Roger: Leading figure in the American Civil Liberties Union.

Baliyev, Nikita: Head of the cabaret-theater “The Bat”.

Balkhash (ship)  [source Venona]

Ball, Joseph: U.S. Senator (R. MN, 1939-1948)

Ballenstedt, George: Described as New York Police official involved in antiradical activities.

Ballona” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Balloon”.

“Balloon” [Ballona] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Atomic bomb.  A partially decoded cover name, “Bal...”, appeared in the Venona decryptions that NSA/FBI judged from the context to likely be “Balloon” and atomic bomb.

Ballot (ship) [source Venona]

Baltenko, Col,: Lanov: cipher officer, Moscow] [source Venona]

Bank” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. State Department.  “Bank” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the State Department.

“Bank”: U.S. State Department  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Banker, Colonel of USAAF (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bankers” [Bankiry] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): In 1939-1945 cover name for project of cultivating Trotskyists.

Bankiry” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bankers”.

Bar” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Institution to which Charlie/Cedric Belfrage was connected in 1943.   Likely the British SIS’s American arm, British Security Coordination.  “Bar” was identified in the Venona decryptions as British Security Coordination.

“Bar”: British intelligence (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Barabanshchikov, Major P.T., engineer in SGPC left U.S. in May 1943 [source Venona]

“Baranov”: inidentified U.S. KGB line, (source Venona)

“Barash, Vladimir”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Barbo”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Barbot or Barbeau, Lieutenant, (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

“Barcelo Fere, Ricardo Jose (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Barch”: Alexander: Kremer, Simon (U.K. line) [source Venona]

“Barcza, Gyorgy von Naglyasony,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Barge”: unidentified  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Bark” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): CPUSA member used by Akhmerov to run a restaurant in DC in 1942.  “Bark” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified.[50]

“Bark”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bark: See “Kora”.

Barkley, Alben: U.S. Senator (D. Kentucky), later Vice-President of the United States.

Barkley, Alvin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Barkov, Peter Georgievich, employee of the Naval neighbors Naval GRU (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Barkov, Yurij M., commercial officer, Vancouver, 44-45 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Barkovsky, Vladimir B.: KGB officer in London, later at Moscow Center.  Candidate for cover names “Allen” and “Glan”.

Barnett, A. G.: Described as an official of the Department of the Interior.  Suspected of being a fake name in a fraudulent document.

“Baron”: Sedlacek, Karel (U.K. line, [West Venona])

Barr, Joel: “Meter” also  “Scout” (source Venona)

Barr, Joel: “Scout” also  “Meter” [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Barr, Joel: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Secret Communist, electrical engineer with Army Signal Corps laboratories.  Member of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.   Secretly defected to the USSR when Julius Rosenberg was arrested.[51]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Scout” prior to September 1944, then “Meter”.

Barrios, Mariano Carrasco, Chilean Lawyer, Chilean consulate in Paris, 1937,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Barromeo, Tony: Recommended as candidate for KGB contact in 1949 by Martha Dodd.

Barron, Victor: American Comintern agent who died after arrest in the failed Prestes coup in Brazil.

Barrows, Alice: Employee U.S. Office of Education from 1919 to 1942, staff  CPUSA’s Abraham Lincoln School in 1944, and in 1948 official of the Progressive Party.  In a 1945 Venona message KGB reported that she gave a source unspecified information under unclear circumstances.  Invoked the fifth amendment to questions regarding CPUSA membership from a congressional committee.[52] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks “Young Woman”.

Barrows, Alice, U.S. government employee, 1920-42, Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago in 1944. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bars” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Leopard”.

Baruch, Bernard (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Baruch, Bernard: Prominent American financial leader and influential public figure.

Baruch, Herman: Brother of Bernard Baruch.

“Base” [Baza] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Portnov’s house in Philadelphia

Basedow’s disease: A thyroid disorder better known in the U.S. as Graves disease.

“Basque (Bask) ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Bass” / “Bas”: Burd, Michael  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bat” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): John Abt.  (Abt’s cover name appears to be an anagram of his real name.)  

Bat, The [Letuchaya Mysh]: Russian cabaret-theater (1918-1928) run by Nikita Baliyev.

Batcheller, Hiland G, Deputy chairman War Production Boarrd;  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Batchelor, Highland G.: Described as vice chairman of operations at the WPB, 1945

Bates, Bureau of standards (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bates, Chemical Warfare Section of War Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Batrak”: Farm hand: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Batt, William Loren: Vice-Chairman of the U.S. War Production Board, 1941-1945, specialized in industrial materials, machinery, and tools issues.

Batt, William Loren  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Battagloa, Ugo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Battering Ram” [Taran] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified aviation expert, target of recruitment visited USSR, 1937.

Battet, Rear Admiral R.M.J.; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

“Battle”: See “Boy”.

Batumi (ship)

“Bauer”: Lieutenant Hein, Czech army in exile (U.K. line, [West Venona])

Bauer, Joseph: Candidate for “Bugle”.  Bauer worked at Republic Aviation in New York at the time when “Bugle” was active.  A September 1944 KGB cable stated that KGB source “Stamp”/Smeltzer (employed at Bell Aircraft) had introduced “Arseny”/Shevchenko to “‘Stamp’s’ friend ‘B.’” (an initial of a real name), who was identified as working at Republic Aviation.  “B”. provided “Arseny” with information on Republic Aviation’s work on the American version of the German V-1 ram jet missile.  The message also relates that Julius Rosenberg provided information on the same project.  FBI/NSA identified “B”. but redacted the name (as it did for “Stamp” as well), likely indicating that when confronted, “B”. had cooperated with FBI.  In reports on the Rosenberg case, the FBI asked David Greenglass about his knowledge of Harold Smeltzer and Joseph Bauer and of possible Julius Rosenberg’s contact with them.  This suggests that by that point the Venona message on “Stamp” and “Bugle” had been broken, Smeltzer and Bauer identified, and FBI was checking with Gold to see if he knew of any Rosenberg contact with them because of the common link over the American V-1.  This suggests that Bauer is a candidate for the name behind the initial “B”. who later appears in the Venona decryptions in November 1944 and in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks in 1945 with the cover name “Bugle”.[53]  

Bayer, Karl: Described as pro-Nazi German-American.

“Bayer, Theodore, president of Russky Golos publishing Company”: Simon (GRU line) [source Venona]

Bayer, Theodore: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Senior CPUSA official.  President of the CPUSA-aligned Russky Golos Publishing Company and manager of Soviet Russia Today. Elizabeth Bentley stated that Jacob Golos identified Bayer as a GRU source.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source for GRU (GRU cover name “Simon”).[54]

Baykin, Rear-Admiral Alexander E.

Baza” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Base”.

“Bazarov: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bazarov, Boris: “Nord”, illegal NY, 1930s  [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Bazarov, Boris: KGB illegal station chief mid-30s.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Nord”.

Bazhin, Evgenij Nikolaevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Beam” [Luch]: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Beam, Jacob: US State Department Chief, Division of Central European Affairs (1947-49).

“Beam” [Luch] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer, 1933-1934.  Described as a medical doctor working under Red Cross cover.  Likely Dr. Grigory Rabinovich, a KGB officer operating under Red Cross cover who arrived in the U.S. in 1933. 

“Beam” [Luch] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Frank Oppenheimer in 1943.

“Beam” [Luch] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1948.

“Beanco”: unidentified name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bear”: Medved: unidentified Republican party leader  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bear Cubs” [Medvezhata] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Republicans and Republican Party, circa 1944.  “Bear Cubs” were identified in the Venona decryptions as Republicans.

“Bear Cubs”: Medvezhata: Repubican party (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bearing”: Mechaev, Ivan Vasilevich  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Beaver, L.D., Missouri (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Beaver-Cloth” [Bobrik] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. First name William and worked for the Red Cross at some point in 1942-1944.  Appears to have been a Communist recruited via CPUSA channels.  “Beaver-Cloth” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in 1943.[55]

“Bebnostin”: Belyakov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Beck” [Bek] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sergey Kurnakov starting in September 1944.  “Beck” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kurnakov.[56]

Bedennyj (ship)

Bederson, Benjamin: Target of recruitment.  Member of the Army Special Engineer Detachment at Manhattan atomic project Los Alamos, later a senior physicist.   Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Wrench”.

Beecroft, Eric Armour, a BEW official [source Venona]

Beer: See “Bir”.

“Beetle ” (cover name): unidentified  (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Beetle” [Zhuk] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, associated with the “Park and Davis” firm, an unknown entify.

“Beginner” [Novichok]: See “Novice”.

“Beigel, Rose, former wife of Luis Arenal”: Roza  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Beiser, George, Bell aircraft engineer.  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bek” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Beck”.

“Beck” (cover name): Sergey Kurnakov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Beker, Johanna Koenen: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Daughter of the prominent German Communist William Koenen.   After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, Johanna Beker moved to Moscow where she worked as a translator for American businessmen.  By her own testimony, she was recruited by the KGB in 1937 to spy on visiting Americans and then sent to the United States in 1939.  KGB assigned her to the network run by Jack Soble and Robert Soblen in 1942.  She worked for Soblen as a courier and later testified against him at his trial in 1961.  Candidate for cover names “Clemence” and “Lee”.[57]

“Belenkiy, Aleksandr”: GE plant worker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Belfrage, Cedric”: Charlie [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Belfrage, Cedric”: UCN/9 nine, of British Security Co-ordination office. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [UCN/9 is all prior to Oct 1943 using the code book that was poorly broken.  The unidentified Charlie in Venona is November 1943 and later, all under the well broken code book.  Possibly UCN/9 is simply Charlie in the poorly broken code book]

Belfrage, Cedric: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Officer of British Security Coordination Office.  Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[58]   Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Charlie” in 1944. 

Belgorod (ship) [source Venona]

Belikov, Aleksander Fedorovich, assistant Naval Attache DC May 1943 [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

Belikov (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Belinskij (ship) [source Venona]

Belitsky, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.

Belka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Squirrel”.

“Belka”: Squirrel: unidentified, may be Anne Sidorovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bell, director of Bell aircraft (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bell, Nancy, sister of Kitty Harris”: Push Button (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Bell Telephone Laboratories: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Administration”.

Belogorod (ship) [source Venona]

Belonyuk, Grigorij (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Belov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Jacob Albam.

“Belov, chief of Radio Department (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Bely ”: Russian for White, retired KGB asset West Coast [source Damaskin Harris]

“Belyaev, A.I., Major General, Chairman of the SPPC in DC”: Alex [source Venona]

Belyaev: Described as a French musical publishing form.

Belyaev, Peter Aleksandrovich, inspector of Soviet Government Purchasing Commission at aircraft plants: “Mikhajlov”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Belyaev, Petr Aleksandrovich: Soviet intelligence officer, technical intelligence, 1943, inspector of Soviet Government Purchasing Commission at aircraft plants and identified as “Mikhailov” (as “Mikhajlov”)  in the Venona decryptions.  Cover name in Vassiliev notebooks: “Mikhailov”.

Belye (Russian political terminology): See Whites.

Ben” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet station chief in San Francisco, mid-30s.

Ben” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified, known to Alexander Koral in the 1930s, possibly associate of Rosenbliett network.

“Ben”: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bendix corporation. Major aviation, electronics, and automotive parts supplier.

Bendix, Vincent: Inventor and chief owner Bendix corporation.

Benes, Bohus (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Benes, Bohus: Soviet intelligence contact.  Czechoslovak government-in-exile consul, San Francisco.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boss”.

Benes, Eduard [Beneš, Eduard]: Leading figure of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Brother”.

Benes, Edward, Eduard Benes / Beneš [West asserts Benes is agent nineteen 19, as is also the view of Cecil Phillips and Lou Benson](KGB U.S. line

Benetskaya, ?: Described as an employee fired from Amtrog, 1930. 

Bengz, Grace Ellen: Contact of “Liberal” and “Grin”.

Benito [Rodriguez Gutierrez, Benito] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Benjamin”: Fedchenkoff, Metropolitan Benjamin J. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Benjamin, David: party name of Ben Davidson [source Chambers Witness]

Benjamin Dixon (ship) [source Venona]

Benson, Elmer: Former U.S. senator and governor of Minnesota (Farmer-Labor) and head of the National Citizens Political Action Committee.

Bentley, Charles P.: Elizabeth Bentley’s father.

Bentley, Edwin L.: Elizabeth Bentley’s paternal grandfather.

Bentley, Elizabeth: Soviet intelligence agent.  Assistant and lover of Jacob Golos, liaison between CPUSA and Soviet intelligence and creator of several espionage networks of covet Communists that he linked to KGB.  After Golos’ death Bentley took over supervision of his networks until KGB took direct control in 1944.  Defected 1945.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[59]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Artist” in 1939, “Clever Girl” (circa 1940 until August 1944), then “Myrna”.

“Bentley, Elizabeth”: Good Girl  Clever Girl Smart Girl =  Umnitsa: Myrna  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Benton, William Burnett: U.S. Senator (D. CT, 1949-1953), Assistant Secretary of State, 1945-1947.

Benzherskiy, Rudolf

Berard, Armand: Senior French diplomat in Washington, 1945-1949.

Berdecio, Marion Davis: Married name of Marion Davis.  See Marion Davis.

Berding, Andrew: Senior OSS officer.

Bereg” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Shore”.

“Bereg” (cover name): Coast or Shore” (cover name): cover name for an unidentified ministry (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Berestetskij [unidentifed]

Berezin, Col. Pavel F. Soviet attache for Air”: Orleans: [source Venona]

Berg” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Koral.  “Berg” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but in a context that suggests Alexander Koral.[60]

“Berg” / “Senor”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Berg”: unidentified, apparently different person from one changed from “Senor” to “Berg” in 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Berg, Major [source Venona]

Berger, ?: Described as a contact of Martha Dodd in Berlin, possibly Gottlob Berger.

Berger, Gottlob: Senior SS officer.

“Berger, Harry (pseudonym): see Arthur Ewert.

Berger, Jospeh Isadore”: U.S. delegate Reparations Commission, non de plum of Jeremiah Digges, personal secretary of the chairman DNC, Hannegan, Robert E. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Berger, Stanley: Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1940.

“Beria, Lavrentij Pavlovich”: Petrov (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Beria, Lavrenty: Long-time Stalin associate.  Became chief of the NKVD in late 1938 and held the post until 1946.  Stalin later gave Beria the additional duty of supervising of the Soviet atomic bomb project as well as other important wartime assignments.  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pavel” and “Petrov”.

Beriya: See Beria.

Berkey, C., geologist NY, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Berkhahn, Gunther J. F”.: Carlos (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Berkman, Alexander: Leading American Anarchist (Russian-born) deported to Soviet Russia in 1919, became highly critical of Soviet communism, and moved to Britain in 1921 and then to France.

Berlin,  ?: Soviet intelligence officer/agent know to Jacob Golos and later arrested in the purge of the security services. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Stark”.

Berlin, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.

Berman, Boris: KGB officer, chief of the Berlin station in the early 1930s. Later an aide to A.A. Slutsky.  Murdered in Stalin’s Terror.

Bernard, Merrill [source Venona]

Bernaut, Elsa: Reiss, Elsa, widow of Ignance Reiss (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Berne, Paul”: Berney, Paul, miss translation of Paul Burns  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Berni” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Berny”.

Bernstein, Bernard: Treasury Department official, Colonel, U.S. Army, and Financial Adviser to General Dwight D. Eisenhower for Civil Affairs and Military Government, 1942-45; Director, Finance Division and Division of Investigation of Cartels and External Assets, U.S. Group Control Commission for Germany, 1944-45.

Bernstein, Colonel Bernard, director Finance Division, U.S. Control Commission for Germany, 1944-45,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bernstein, Joseph Milton: “Marquis” /  “Markiz”: (GRU line) [source Venona]

Bernstein, Oscar: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Lawyer, used for organizing covers.  A 1948 Gorsky memo Chambers/Karl’s group name.[61]  Chambers did not discuss Oscar Bernstein in Witness.

Bernstein, Walter Sol  [source Venona]

Bernsten, Richard: Spelling error in the original for Bransten, Richard.

“Berny” [Berni] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945.  Head of an unidentified group.  Possibly a CPUSA apparatus.

Berny (party name): Bernard Redmont.

Berry, Edward, biologist Baltimore (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Berzin, Yan Karlovich: founder and long-time chief of GRU.  Executed in Stalin’s purge of the intelligence services in the late 1930s.

Bethe, Hans (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Betti” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Betty”.

“Betty” [Betti] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Vasily Zarubin in 1935 and later 1930s.

Beurton, Ursula ((real name): Married name of Ursula Kuczynski.

Bevan, Aneurin: British Labour Party politician prominent on the left wing of the party.

Bevin, Ernest: British Foreign Secretary, Labour government, 1945.

BEW: Board of Economic Warfare, U.S.

BEW, Bureau of Economic Warfare”: Warehouse: Sklad  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Beymut, ?: Described as a associate of Robert Oppenheimer and Ernest Lawrence.  Appears to be a variant spelling of John Veymut.

Bezrukov, Nikon (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Biberman, Herbert: Hollywood writer.  Recommended as candidate for KGB contact in 1949 by Martha Dodd.

“Biberovich, Vladislav: “Zeus” [Ukrainian, naturalized Canadian, in Canadian war censorship office] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bibi”: redacted  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bidault, Georges-Augustin: French political figure and head of three French governments, 1946-1950.

Biddle, Francis, Attorney General, September 1941 to 30 June 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Big House”: C.I., Comintern: Bol’Shoj Dom (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Big House”: KGB [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

“Big House” [Bol'shoy Dom] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Communist International.  “Big House” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Communist International.

“Big Town” [Bolshoj Gorod] [Bolshoy Gorod] (cover name in Venona, Naval GRU line 1943): Likely New York City

Bigelow, E. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bill” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed KGB officer/agent. References to in 1935.

“Bill”: a Chambers’ Soviet intelligence contact (Chambers thought Estonian or Finn) [source Chambers Witness]

“Bill”: Iskhak Akhmerov [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

“Bill”: Iskhak Akhmerov [source Bentley FBI statement]

“Bill of Exchange” / “Veksel” / “Wechsel”: Oppenheimer, Julius Robert: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bill (party name): William Browder.

Bir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alfred Slack starting in October 1944.  (Alternative translation: Beer)  “Bir” (translated as “Beer”) appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, earlier “Ell”.[62]

“Bir”/  Beer also “Ell”  unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bircanin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Birg [possibly Birge, Raymond Thayer, physicist, Berkeley.] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Birkin, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center

Biryuzov, Sergey Semenovich: Senior Soviet general, 1945.

Bishon, Charles (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bissell, John T.: Senior U.S. Army counterintelligence officer.

Bisson, Thomas Arthur (BEW, IPR, GRU line): “Arthur”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bitkin, Anatolij [Anatoly] Nikolaevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Black” / “Edwards”: Gerhart Eisler, mid-30s Comintern pseudonym [source F. Firsov]

“Black”: Black, Thomas Lessing, KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Black” [Cherny] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Thomas Black prior to October 1944. “Black” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Thomas Black.[63]

Black, Hugo: Justice, U.S. Supreme Court.

Black, Thomas Lessing: Soviet intelligence source/agent, technological line.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[64]   Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Black” [Cherny] (prior to October 1944), then “Peter”.

Black, Thomas Lessing, chemist, Organics, Inc.: “Black” / “Peter”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Black”: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Blair & Co.: Described as American financial firm, 1927.

Baird, W. J.: [source Venona]

Blaisdell, Thomas: Described as the supervisor of Victor Perlo at the WPB.

“Blanco” [Blanko] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, member of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus, 1943. 

“Blanie, Lacques (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Blank, Jacques”: Jacques Blankart (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Blankart & Co (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Blanko” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Blanco”.

Blerio” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Stanislav Shumovsky, KGB officer, aviation espionage.  “Blerio” translated as “Bleriot” was identified as Shumovsky in the Venona decryptions.[65]

“Bleriot”: Stanaslav Shumovsky: KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bleriot: see “Blerio”

Blin” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Pancake”.

“Blin” or “Pancake” (cover name): Stone, Isidor Feinstein (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Blizky” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Near”.

“Block” [Blok] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Stephen Urevich starting in September 1944.  “Block” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[66]  

Block, Louis: Secret Communist, staff of Social Security Board, friend of Gregory Silvermaster in the 1930s.

Blok” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Block”.

“Blok (cover name): “Block”;  “Rybolov” / “Osprey” or “Fisherman”; “Kin” or “Keen”; unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bloom, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bloom, Solomon: U.S. Representative (D. NY) 1923-1950.

Bloomfield, Samuel, manager of the Progressive Book Shop in Washington (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bluel, Maurice (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Blue-Tit” / “Sinitsa”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Blue Tit” [Sinitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Vladimir Stepankowsky. “Blue Tit” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet source whose activities were compatible with those of Stepankowsky.

Blum, Leon: French socialist political leader, 1930s, prime minister of a popular front government, 1936-1937.

Blumberg, Albert: Chief of the CPUSA in Maryland and the District of Columbia.

Blunt, Anthony: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Cambridge don, art expert, and British intelligence officer during WWII who was a Soviet agent from the mid-1930s onward, one of the “Cambridge Five”.[67]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Anthony” (given name used as a cover name, 1937-1939), “Tony” (1940-42), & “Johnson” (1946).

“Boar”: Churchill (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Boar” [Kaban] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Winston Churchill.  “Boar” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Churchill.

Board of Economic Warfare, U.S. (BEW): Predecessor to the Foreign Economic Administration.

“Boatman” [Lodochnik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Glushinsky.  References to in 1935.

“Boatswain”  /“Botsman”:  Henry Wallace(KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bob” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Boris Krotov, Soviet intelligence officer in the U.S., 1947-1950 NY.  “Bob” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Boris Krotov on the London-Moscow channel in 1945.

Bob” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Menaker, early 1940s.  “Bob” was identified in the Venona decryptions in 1943-1944 as Robert Menaker.[68]

Bob” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB source/agent in 1935.  Likely Robert Menaker but possibly someone else.

“Bob”: Boris Krotov, KGB officer London (U.K. line, [West Venona])

“Bob”: Robert Owen Menaker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bob”: Sidorovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Bob”: Whittaker Chambers [source Chambers Witness]

Bob: Robert Miller’s party name.

Bob (work name/pseudonym): Work name/pseudonym by which Harold Glasser referred to Alger Hiss when communicating with KGB.

Bobrik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Beaver-Cloth”.  (Alternative translation: Castor)

“Bobrow, Robinson”: Richard (GRU line) [source Venona]

“Bobwik”: Beaver-cloth (Russian hair style): unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bochek, Aleksandr Pavlovich”: Vovchek  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bochkarev, Grigory Emelyanovich: Crew on the Soviet tanker “Azerbaijan”.

Bochkareva, Maria Leontievna: Member of the 1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death organized under the Kerensky government.  Author of a memoir, Yashka: My Life As Peasant, Exile, and Soldier (1919), written with the assistance of Isaac Don Levine.  Executed by the Bolsheviks in 1920. (Alternative translation: Mariya Bochkarëva).

“Bochkovsky, ?: Described as a Ukrainian nationalist leader in exile.

“Bodson”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona]

Boerger, Frederic: Described as sister of Ruth Boerger and daughter of Frederick G. Boerger, either an error for Fredericka or a confusion with the father’s name. 

Boerger, Frederick G.: Father of Ruth Boerger.

Boerger, Ruth: Soviet intelligence contact, American Communist, wife of GRU officer Arnold Ikal. Part of the Robinson/Rubens case.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “American”.

“Boets”: Fighter: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Boev” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Boevoj”: Petrov on Tsiolkovskij (ship)  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Bog”: God  unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bogart, Michael: Born in Odessa, Russia as Mikhail Samoylovich Bogart.  Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Technical source on the West Coast.  Bother of Burton Perry.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sam”.

Bogdan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer.  References to in 1945.

Bogdanov, George Vladimir  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bogdanov, Ivan”: real name Bogdanovich, (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Bogdanov, Piotr A.: Chairman of Amtorg, 1930.

“Bogdanovich”: Bogdanov, Ivan, real name (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Bogdenko, Rear Admiral V. L”.: unidentified name cb (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Bogomolov: unidentified name , may be Aleksandr Bogomolov, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bogomolov, Aleksandr E., Soviet Ambassador to Allied Governments in London, 1941-1943 [source Venona]

Bogomolov, Alexandr: Soviet ambassador to France, 1949

Boguslavskij, Boris Mikhajlovich: Sukhumskij

Bohle, ?: Described as German agent working against the Soviets.

Bohlen, Charles: Senior American diplomat and Soviet specialist.

Bohr, Niels: Danish physicist working with the British atomic bomb program. 

Bohr, Niels (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bojkij” “Bojky” / “Perky”: Jay, Norman (WMCA commentator) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bok, B.J. astronomer from Cambridge, Mass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bok”: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Bol”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bolaslav, John Wrzesinski aka Bolaslav, John Corvin”: Korvin, Boris  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Bolles, E. Blair: Journalist and official of the Foreign Policy Association, late 1940s.

“Bolshakov”: unidentified KGB line, Venona

Bolshakov, Ivan G.,: Soviet Minister of Film, 1946-1953.

Bolshevik (ship) [source Venona]

Bolsheviks: Extremist wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party led by Vladimir Lenin, opponents of the Mensheviks, later adopting the name Communists.

Bolshoj Okhotnik (ship)

Bol'shoy Dom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Big House”.

Bolshoj Gorod” (Bolshoy Gorod) (cover name in Venona, Naval GRU line 1943): see “Big Town”                   

Bolt” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Inoke N. Varie (also know as Innokenty Nikol. Vorozheyka).  “Bolt” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[69] 

“Bolt”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bomb”.

“Bomb” (cover name): Stimson, Henry L. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bomb” [Bom] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Secretary of War, circa 1944.

Boncescu, in OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bonham Carter, Oliver (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Bonnet, Henri: French ambassador to the U.S., 1947-1948.

Bonnet, Henri (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Book (KGB tradecraft term): A passport or other travel and identification documentation.

Bookbinder, George: OSS officer.

Bookman, Henry: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boos”.[70] 

Boorstein, Isidore: J. Peters [source Chambers Witness]

Bor” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Richard Waldo.

Borah, William: U.S. Senator, 1907-1940 (R. Idaho).

Bordovsky, ?: Soviet official involved in advanced technology.

Borges, Thomas Pampeu Acciloly    (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Boris” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent in 1947 described as having been in the U.S. in an earlier period.

“Boris”: Aleksandr Saprykin, cipher clerk,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Boris”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Boris, in Moscow”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Borisenko, Konstantin (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Borisenko, Sysoeva, Morozovskaya: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Borisov”: Chief KGB 5th Cryptographic directorate in Moscow. Ivan G. Sheveley in 1943-1946. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Borisov”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Borisov: unidentified  in Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Borisovsky-Meltser, ?: KGB officer, Anglo-American sector, late 1920s.

“Bormann, Martin: Senior Nazi official.

“Born”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Born, Max: Leading theoretical physicist. 

Borodavko, Lt. Aleksandr Vladimirovich lost Red Banner award book. (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Borodin, ?: described as official of  Soyuzbumaga.

Borodin, Norman: Soviet intelligence officer/agent.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Granite”.

Borovich, Sidney [Target for recruitment] (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Borovyj, Leo Judah”: Stevens, Gordon (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Borovyj, Pavel (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Boruch” [Borukh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed agent, NY residencey. References to in 1935.

Borukh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Boruch”.

“Boss”: Yakubovskij (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Boss” [Khozyain] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bohus Benes.

“Boss” [Khozyain] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1940-1943.  Likely Henry Bookman.  Described as owning a women’s fashion salon in which the KGB invested $5,000. First name Henry.  An FBI investigation of Iskhak Akhmerov’s activities established that “Henry Bookman”, the owner of “Henry Bookman Inc”. provided business cover for Akhmerov’s activities.[71]

“Botsman” / “Boatswain”:  Henry Wallace(KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bough” [Suk] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945.  “Bough” under the transliteration “Suk” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. 

Bowen [Bouen], Ralph, U.S. State Dept. and YCL”: Alan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bowen, Sue, wife of Ralph Bowen, YCL (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bowers, Claude: U.S. ambassador to Spain, 1933-1939.

Boy” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Charles Flato in 1944-45.[72]

Boy” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Sherman, December 1945 (note overlap with Charles Flato).[73]

Boy” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Dodd, William, jr., 1936-1939.[74]

Boyarsky, ?: Lieutenant Colonel of State Security.

Boyd, Helen: Maiden name of Helen Boyd Duggan.

Boyev, ?: Senior Soviet official, 1933.

Boyev, Ivan V.: Chairman of Amtorg, mid-1930s.

Bradley, Omar: Senior American Army general.

Bragg, Peter N.: Chemist involved in the Manhattan atomic project.

“Brahms”: ..ev  but otherwise unidentified  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Brahms” [Brams] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source.  William Perl is a candidate for “Brahms”.

Brakhtman, ?: Soviet naval officer, rank junior captain.

Brams” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Brahms”.

Bransten, Louise, candate for Map unidentified female (KGB Line, San Francisco) source Venona]

Bransten Louise (real name). Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Born in San Francisco in 1908, the only child of a wealthy Jewish merchant who founded a produce company, Louise Rosenberg inherited more than a million dollars from her parents.  Married and then divorced from Richard Bransten, a prominent Communist journalist, she was active in the American-Russian Institute in San Francisco.  Her association with Grigory Kheifets, diplomat at the Soviet consulate in San Franciso (and KGB San Francisco station chief) was so close that she was frequently referred to as his mistress.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Map”. 

Bransten, Richard: see Minton, Bruce.

Bras” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Klaus Fuchs, 1950s.

Brat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Brother”.

“Brother” changed to “Thomas” (cover names): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bratsky” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fraternal”.  (Alternative translation: Brothers, Brother Organization) 

Brauchitsch, German Field Marshal,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Brauchitsch, Walther von: Senior Wehrmacht commander.

Braun” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, recruited in 1940, out of contact early 1941. (Alternative translation: Brown.)

“Brave” [Smel'y]: See “Plucky”.

“Brecher, Ludwig: Romanian name of Louis Dolivet.

Brecht, Berthold”: [Poet: Viertel, Berthold or Brecht, Berthold] (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Brecht, Bertold: Soviet intelligence contact/informant.  Refugee German dramatist and KGB informant on fellow refugee Germans.  In the Venona decryptions a KGB informant with the cover name “Poet” appears whom NSA/FBI identified as either Berthold Brecht or Berthold Viertel.

“Bredan”: Keeney, Philip (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bredis, ?: Officer in the OO OGPU in 1930.

Breen, David”: Chambers, Whittaker [Weinstein Perjury 1997 ed.]

“Breen, David”: Whittaker Chambers fake passport name [source Chambers Witness]

“Breit, Gregory., Bureau of Standards (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Breme” / “Brem”: Babin, Thomas, (GRU & KGB line) [source Venona]

Brent, Joe: Described as a journalist, intelligence source used by Samuel Dickstein.

Bretiel, Sam: Described as a U.S. officer delivering a report on heavy bombers.

Brichanskij, Pavel Ivanovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Bridgeman, Percy, physics Cambridge, Mass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bridges, Harry

“Brigadier” [Brigadir] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent, NY station, inventor of some sort, possible Russian immigrant, mid-30s.

Brigadir” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Brigadier”.

Briggs, Lloyd Cabot (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Briggs, Richard: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Alfred Slack supplied technical information to the Soviets via Briggs when working at Eastman Kodak in the late 1930s.[75]  Likely candidate for the cover name “Film”.

“Brilov”: Starygin (on ship Emba)  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Brion”: Shvetsov, Boris (U.K. line, [West Venona])

Brit” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Armand Labis Feldman.  Feldman was the pseudonym of Iosif V. Volodarsky.

Britain: “Island” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

British embassy in the U.S.: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Whirlpool”.

British Security Coordination Office: An arm of British SIS established in New York with U.S. government permission.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bar” (1943).

Briton, N. biologist NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Broadway” [Brodvey] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): OSS London station cover name for British SIS, 1945.

Brobsky, Joseph: CPUSA’s attorney in the 1930s and 1940s.

Broda, Engelbert: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Refugee Austrian physicist at Cambridge, secret Communist and KGB source.  Also known as Bertl Broda. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Eric” (1943-44), “Quid” in 1945 “Eric”/Broda appears to be identical with the Soviet source “K”. in West and Tsarev and Andrew and Mitrokhin.[76]

Brodvey” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Broadway”.

Bromley, Robert  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bron, Saul: Director of Amtorg, 1920s.

Bronislava, Litovkina: See Litovkina Moroz.

Bronya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Armor”.

“Bronya”: Armor [Armour]: redacted employee at Bell Aircraft, Buffalo. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Brook: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Brooks, ?: Described by Charles Kramer in 1945 as a former associate of James Byrnes (U.S. Senator and Secretary of State).  Possibly U.S. Senator Charles Brooks (R. Illinois).

“Brother”: Brat, later Thomas, unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Brother” [Brat] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Eduard Benes, circa 1944.

“Brother” [Brat] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence, 1943, probably aviation related.  “Brother” is associated with “Emulsion” in 1943, and likely “Brother” is “Emulsion’s brother” from 1938.  “Brother” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, cover name changed to “Thomas” in October 1944.[77]  William Plourde is a candidate for “Thomas”/“Brother”. A deciphered KGB cable suggested that William Plourde, an engineer at Bell aircraft, was a KGB source but no cover name for him was given.  Plourde, then, would be a candidate for “Brother”/“Thomas”. [78]

“Brother Organization” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fraternal”.

Brotherhood of Ukrainian Catholics (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Brother-in-law” (Svoyak): unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Brothers” [Bratsky] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fraternal”. 

Brothman, Abraham: Konstruktor: “Constructor”: Ekspert: “Expert” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Brothman, Abraham: Konstruktor: “Expert” [source Feklisov]

Brothman, Abraham: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  A chemist. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as a Soviet source with whom Jacob Golos worked.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Constructor” prior to October 1944, changed to “Expert” in October 1944 and appeared as “Chrome Yellow” by February 1945 and thereafter.[79] 

Broverman, Fred: Described as business associate of Jack Soble, 1952.

Browder, Earl: “Helmsman”: Rulevoj  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Browder, Earl: Rulevoy or “Helmsman” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Browder, Earl: Soviet intelligence contact/informant.  General Secretary of the CPUSA, supervised CPUSA assistance to Soviet intelligence.  Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as authorizing and overseeing her and Jacob Golos’s cooperation with Soviet intelligence. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.  Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent. Identified in Comintern documents as assisting Soviet intelligence.[80]  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Helmsman” (1942-1945), “Shaman” (1946-). 

Browder, Gladys: Earl Browder’s first wife.

Browder, Irena: Wife of Earl Browder.  Born in Russia in 1895, to a father with German citizenship, Raisa Borisovna Luganovskaia (also known as Raisa Berkman) grew up in Lithuania, then part of the Russian Empire.  She was trained as a lawyer, married an early Bolshevik, and herself joined the Bolsheviks in 1917 in Kharkov, Ukraine.  According to a Comintern biography she was very active in the Bolshevik Revolution and served “in 1918--in Kharkov, Provincial Commissar of Justice, with emergency powers”.  A commissar of justice in Bolshevik practice supervised trial court judges, heard appeals from trial courts, and had the power to change trial court actions.  After the Revolution she became a member of the presidium of the Soviet state court in Moscow.  She held a variety of responsible Communist party and Soviet state positions during the 1920s, travelled to Germany and France on unspecified missions, and in 1933 entered a program of advanced studies at the International Lenin School specializing in American studies.[81]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Peasant”.

Browder, Margaret: “Gin” / “Anna” [source Damaskin Harris]

Browder, Margaret: Soviet intelligence agent in Europe in the 1930s.[82]  Sister of Earl Browder.

Browder, Rose: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Also known as Rose Euler.  Wife of William Browder, contact between KGB and Earl Browder.

Browder, William: Soviet intelligence contact/informant.  Brother and assistant to Earl Browder.  Party name Bill. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[83]

“Brown”: unidentified source (U.K. line, [West Venona])

Brown Brothers: International banking firm.

Brown, Fred: Party name/pseudonym of CPUSA cadre who worked with Italian-American in the 1930s.  Also known as Mario Alpi.  Birth name possibly F. Marini.

Brown, John: Abolitionist activist executed for his violent attempt to organize a revolt of black slaves.

Brown: See “Braun”.

Brown, Walter F.: U.S. Postmaster General, 1929-1933.

Brown, Walter Lyman: Official of the ARA.

BRP: Bratstvo Russkoy Pravdy (Brotherhood of Russian Truth), a White Guard emigre organization.

Bruce, David K.: American Ambassador to France, 1949-1952.

Brumia” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): United States of America, 1950.

Brumians” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Americans, 1950.

“Brun” [Bryun] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed KGB agent/officer, early 1930s.

Brush pass (tradcraft): A brief encounter, often unspoken and appearing as a momentary brushing together between strangers, where something is passed between courier/case officer and agent.  “Momentalka” in Russian.

Bruslov, Yury Mikhailovich: KGB officer Washington Station, late 1940s, 1950.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pavel”.

“Brusov”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Brüning, Heinrich  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Bryansk (ship) [source Venona]

“Brykin”: unidentified [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

Bryukhanov, Nikolay Pavlovich: Bolshevik leader, People's Commissar of Finances, 1926-1930.  Executed in Stalin’s Terror, 1938.

Bryun  (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Brun”.

Bryzgin, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Yakolevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Buben” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Louis F. Budenz.

Bubi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence agent.  Likely Leo Helfgott based on Simon Rosenberg’s (S-7) statements to the FBI in the Armand Feldman case.   References to in 1937.

Buchman, Henry: Khosyain: “Employer” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Bucyrus: American manufacturer of excavators and massive mining equipment.

“Budanov”: Olkhov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Budd Aircraft.

“Buddy” [Priyatel'] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, diplomat with the Czechoslovak embassy in Washington.

Budenny (ship)

Budenz, Louis F.: Soviet intelligence contact/informant.  Senior CPUSA official who assisted Soviet intelligence, defector 1945.   Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as assisting Jacob Golos’s intelligence activities.  Budenz testified that in the late 1930s he had direct contact with Soviet intelligence and assisted with recruiting agents to penetrate the Trotskyist movement and in the early 1940s as a senior party officer was aware of CPUSA assistance to Soviet espionage.[84]. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Buben”, “Tambourine”.

Budenz, Luis Francis: Spelling garble, see Budenz, Louis Francis.

“Bugle”: Gorn: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bugle” [Gorn] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence, likely aviation. References to in 1945, 1948.  “Bugle” appeared in the Venona decryptions in November 1944 as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, likely aviation related.[85]  Joseph Bauer is a candidate for “Bugle”.

“Builder” [Stroitel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Communist, technical intelligence, 1942.  Associated with Julius Rosenberg.

Bukharin, Nikolay: Senior Bolshevik leader executed in the Great Terror.

Bukhartsev, Dmitri: Soviet intelligence agent, likely a co-optee. Izvestia correspondent, Berlin.   Liaison with Martha Dodd, 1936 (prior to Pioneer).  Bukhartsev later testified in one of the Moscow Trials in 1937 and confessed to being part of a Trotskyist conspiracy.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Emir”.

Bukhgol’ts, wife of (GRU line) [source Venona]

“Bukinist”: Second Hand Bookseller: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bukov, Barna: See Bukov, Boris.

Bukov, Boris: Soviet intelligence officer/agent.  GRU illegal officer.  In 1939 Walter Krivitsky, a senior KGB defector, identified as Boris Bykov of GRU as a Soviet control officer known to Whittaker Chambers as Peter.  In his 1939 autobiography, Krivitsky, who had been a GRU officer before shifting to the KGB in the mid-1930s, also identified Bykov as the chief of GRU operations in the U.S. in 1936-1939.  Am entry in GRU: Dela i Liudi [GRU: Cases and People] for “Bukov (Altman) Boris Yakovlevich”, lists Bukov as “Illegal station chief of Razvedupr [GRU] in the U.S.A. (1936-1939)”. Likely Altman was a Jewish birth name with Bukov as a Russianized replacement.  The Chambers’ “Bykov” and GRU’s “Bukov” are the same person is made even clearer when it is understood that Chambers told the FBI that Krivitsky had pronounced “Bykov” as “boo-koff”. One should also note that the Russian Cyrillic letter “y” is pronounced with a Latin alphabet “u” sound.  What is unclear is why Krivitsky (or his translator/editor in 1939) would transliterate the name as Bykov, usually pronounced “bi-koff”, rather than Bukov.[86]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Jerome”.

Bulganin, Nikolay A.: Senior Soviet official, part of Stalin’s inner circle after WWII.

Bulkley, Robert: U.S. Senator, 1930-1939 (D. Ohio).

“Bull” [Byk] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945.

Bulletin Business Review: Likely a garbled title for a journal described as edited by Harry Magdoff.

Bulletin of the Opposition: Trotskyist journal.

Bullitt, William: American diplomat and first U.S. ambassador to the USSR.[87]

Bullitt, William C.: “Caliph”: Kalif (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bumblebee” [Shmel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): David Greenglass in October 1944, paired with the cover name “Wasp” for his wife.  “Bumblebee” was identified in the Venona decryptions as David Greenglass in November 1944   By December 1944 Greenglass’s cover name in the Venona decryptions appeared as “Caliber”, likely changed when KGB noticed that it was already using “Bumblebee” as the cover name for the journalist Walter Lippmann.[88]

“Bumblebee” [Shmel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Senior journalist, 1945.  Likely Walter Lippmann.  “Bumblebee” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Walter Lippmann in the fall of 1944 and into 1945.[89] 

“Bumblebee”: Shmel: David Greenglass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bumblebee”: Shmel: Walter Lippmann,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bund Deutscher Madchen[90]: League of German Girls.

Burce, David (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Burd, Michael [Weisburd] of Midland Export Corp.: “Tenor” / “Bass” / “Bas” / “Ten” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Burdett, Winston: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Burdett was recruited via the CPUSA on Comintern instructions in 1940 and assisted Soviet intelligence while working as a war correspondent in Europe for several years before dropping out.  Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as assisting Soviet espionage.  After initial denial, he eventually admitted his involvement to the FBI and, in 1955, to a congressional investigating committee.[91]  Candidate for the cover name “Eagle”.

Bure, Emile-Clemant-Charles [nee Dreux] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bureau” [Byuro] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Intourist.

Bureau of Education, U.S..

Burgess, Anthony = Mädchen [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Burgess, Guy: British diplomat and Soviet agent.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Madchen”.

Burke, Jack B.: Described as a Communist who worked on the staff of Senator La Follette’s Civil Liberties Subcommittee in the late 1930s, later in OSS.

Burkhard, George: I.F. Stone contact in Berlin.

Burkhardt, Carl: International Red Cross official

Burlakov, Vasiliy [Vasily] I.,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Burland, E. G.: Described as a director of Blair & Co., former ARA official.

Burns, General (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Burns, James H.: U.S. Army General, considered for appointment as U.S. ambassador to the USSR in 1942. 

Burns, Paul, NSA/FBI shows as Berne and Bernay, but clearly is ti Burns.   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Burse” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Seminary”.

Bursler, Norman    (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bursler, Norman: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.  KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about him in 1944.[92]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sur”.

Burslov, Yury: Soviet intelligence officer/agent, U.S. late 1940s.

Burt, ?: A Soviet intelligence officer met Stanley Graze at Burt’s wedding in Costa Rico in 1976.

“Burtsenko”: Zhukov: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

Busbey, Fred: U.S. Representative, 1943-1945 (R. IL)

Bush, Vannevar: Leading American engineer and scientific administrator.  Headed the Office of Scientific Research and Development in WWII.

Bushuev, Vasilij [Vasily] , Soviet seaman deserter. (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Businessman”: unidentified source (U.K. line, [West Venona])

“Butberg, ? (real name), and Baron Butberg’s White Guard group.

“Butcher”: redacted (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Bute, E.T.: Described as a scientist involved in the Manhattan atomic project.  Spelling unconfirmed, alternative translations Butte or But.

Butkov, ?: KGB officer, Moscow Center.

Butler, George: Described as State Department official, 1948.

Butler, Neville: Senior official in the British Foreign Office, 1945.

Butler, Nicholas Murray: President of Columbia University and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.

Butler, W.: Described as chief of the Airplane Bureau Division, WPB, 1945.

Butler, William: U.S. Senator, 1923-1927 (R. MA).

Butorov, seamen deserer (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Butosov, ?: Official of the  People’s Commissariat of the Defense Industry.

Butterworth, J.E., General, chief of conservation Branch, Services of Supply, US Army.  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Butti, Peter: Described as a relative of Gregory Silvermaster in the Soviet Union.

“Button” [Knopka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938.

Butz, ? (real name), and the “Butz affair”: Unknown.

Byk” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bull”.

“Bykov, Boris”: Peter [source Chambers Witness]

Bykov, Boris: see Bukov, Boris.

Byrd, Harry F.: U.S. senator (D. Virginia).

Byrnes, James F.: U.S Senator (D. SC) and U.S. Secretary of State, 1945-47.

Byrnes, James F. Director of Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Byuro” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bureau”.

“Byvalov”: Lovanov, Vasilij [Vasily]  Nikolaevich

 

XXC

 

C. [CC]: redacted except for first letter C. linked to Rosenberg  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

C.: Center, KGB headquarters in Moscow.

C-1” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-1”.

C-10” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-10”.

C/10” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/10”.

C-100” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-100”.

C/16” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/16”.

C-17” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-17”.

C-2” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-2”.

C/2” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-2”.

C/3” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/3”.

C-5” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/5”.

C-6” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-6”.

C-7” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-7”.

C/7” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/7”.

C-8” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-8”.

C/8” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/8”.

“Cabaret”: Office of the Co-ordinator of Inter-American Affairs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cabaret” [Kabare] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (Rockerfeller committee).  “Cabaret” was identified in the Venona decryptions as as the  Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs.

“Cabin” [Izba] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Office of Strategic Services, OSS starting in 1942.  KGB cover name for OSS was “Izba”, in Vassiliev’s notebooks translated as “Cabin”.  KGB cover name for FBI was “Khata”, in Vassiliev’s notebooks translated as “Hut”.  Izba and Khata have overlapping meanings in Russian (with Khata as a generic peasant’s hut) and one could reverse the chosen translation.  “Izba” was identified in the Venona decryptions as OSS starting in 1942 but Venona translated “Izba” as “Hut” rather then “Cabin”.

Cadillac (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Caen”: Los Angeles [source Venona]

Caesar Rodney  (ship) [source Venona]

Café Society: New York City nightclub linked to the CPUSA.

Caine: See “Kane”.

Cairncross, John: Soviet intelligence source/agent, U.K.  His espionage did not become public until 1990 with the publication of Andrew and Gordievsky’s The KGB.[93]   Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Liszt”.

Cairo, Arrigo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Caldwell, Sylvia: pseudonym used by Sylvia Callen when she infiltrated the SWP.  Also [Doxsee, Sylvia Lorraine Callen] [Sylvia Franklin] [Sylvia Callen]: Satyr: Satir  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Caldwell, Sylvia (pseudonym): See Callen, Sylvia.  Pseudonym used by Sylvia Callen when she infiltrated the Socialist Workers Party for the KGB.

“Caliber” [Kalibr] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): David Greenglass, December 1944-March 1950.  “Caliber” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Greenglass.[94]

“Calibre ( Kalibr)”: David Greenglass  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Caliph”: Kalif: William C. Bullitt (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Callahan”: James Michael Callaham, ship’s clerk, described as a “trustworthy dockworker”, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Callen, Sylvia [Doxsee, Sylvia Lorraine Callen] [Sylvia Franklin] [Sylvia Caldwell]: Satyr: Satir  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Callen, Sylvia: Secret Communist, KGB anti-Trotskyist penetration agent under the name Sylvia Caldwell; secretary for James Cannon, chief of the Socialist Workers Party (Trotskyist). Also known as Sylvia Franklin and Sylvia Lorraine Doxsee. Married for a period to American Communist and KGB agent Irving Zalmond Franklin.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[95]   Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Satyr” until August 1944, then “Rita”.

“Callistratus”: Kalistrat: Fomin, Aleksandr  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Callistratus” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Feklisov.  “Callistratus” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Aleksandr Fomin, pseudonym used in the U.S. by KGB officer Alexander Feklisov when under diplomatic cover. 

Calvo Ramirez, Roberto: Zapata (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Camacho, Maximino Avila, brother of (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Camilla”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

“Camille”: unidentified source GRU (U.K. line, [West Venona])

“Camille”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Camp 1” [Lager' 1] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Oak Ridge Manhattan atomic project facility.  “Camp 1” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified Manhattan atomic project facility and in a context that suggests Oak Ridge.

“Camp 2”: Los Alamos [source Feklisov]

“Camp 2” [Lager' 2] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Los Alamos Manhattan atomic project facility.  “Camp 2” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Los Alamos Manhattan atomic project facility.

“Camp U” [Lager' Y]: See “Camp Y”.[96]

“Camp W” [Lager' W] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Hanford, Washington facilities of the Manhattan atomic project, also know as “Site W”. 

“Camp X” [Lager' X] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Reference in a Harry Gold report of a meeting with Klaus Fuchs with reference to the Manhattan atomic project in New Mexico, i.e. Site Y. 

“Camp Y” [Lager' Y] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Los Alamos Manhattan atomic project facility, also known as “Site Y”.

“Camp-1” [Camp #1]: an atomic site [probably Oak Ridge] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Camp-2” [Camp #2]: Los Alamos atomic site  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Campbell”: Kempbel: unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Campbell, D.H., biologist CA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Camphor”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Canada: “Forest” / “Lesovia” (GRU line) also “Land”  / “Kray” (KGB line) [source Venona]

Canada: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Territory”.

Cannon, James: American Trotskyist leader, chief of the Socialist Workers Party.

Canon: misspelling, see Cannon, James.

“Canopus”: Kanop, in U.S. State Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Cantacuzen, Matthew [Chaca-Cantacuzin?, Matea] Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cantor” [Kantor] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1942-44.  Appears to have been a Communist recruited via CPUSA channels.

“Cantwell, Lloyd”: Whittaker Chambers  [source Chambers Witness]

Capa, Robert: prominent WWII American war photographer. 

Cape Charles (ship) [source Venona]

“Cape Spencer  (ship) [source Venona]

“Capitalist”: Harriman, W. Averell  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Captain”: Kapitan: FDR (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Captain” [Kapitan] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Franklin D. Roosevelt.  “Captain” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Roosevelt.

Captain Voronin (ship) [source Venona]

“Captain’s deputy” [zamestitel' Kapitana]: Henry Wallace.

Capte Porpoise (ship) [source Venona]

Carbon Corporation.

Cardenas, Lazaro (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Careful” [Ostorozhny]: See “Cautious”.

Carl: see Karl. 

Carlisle, Kitty: Described as mistress of Bernard Baruch.

“Carlos”: appears to be Soviet in the Office, not Casanova Subercaseaux: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Carlos”: Berkhahn, Gunther J. F. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Carlos”: unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Carlos” [Karlos]: Christian Casanova Subercaseaux  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Carmen”: Karmen, unidentifed covername of a courier (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Carmen” [Karmen] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Koral prior to August 1944.  “Carmen” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Helen Koral.[97]

Carnegie, Andrew: Industrialist and philanthropist.

“Carnero”: unidentified ;  (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

“Caro”: Jürgen Kuczynsky  GRU line in U.K. [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Carp Export and Import Company: Company directed by Sam Carp.

“Carp” [Karp] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, described as having been compromised by 1950 along with “Sima”/Coplon.  Valentin Gubichev, a Soviet intelligence agent, is a likely candidate for “Carp” in as much as he was arrested when meeting with Coplon. 

Carp, Sam: Immigrant from Tsarist Russia (Ukraine), birth name as Carpowski, and Vyacheslav Molotov’s American brother-in-law. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as espionage risks.[98]  

Carpeau, Joas Maria; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

“Carpenter” [Plotnik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Plavnik.

Carpenter, David: CPUSA cadre, active in both the open party in the Baltimore-Washington area and with party publications (Daily Worker and New World Review) and in the party’s covert arm.  Birth name David Zimmerman.  Identified by Whittaker Chambers as assisting with his GRU/CPUSA network.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “103rd”.

Carr, Wilbur: Assistant Secretary of State, 1933-1937.

Carrillo Marcor, Alejanbro: Texas (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Carrillo, Rafael (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Carroll, Fred (party name): Soviet intelligence source/agent San Francisco area.  Likely party name of Robert Soblen.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Roman”.  “Roman” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Robert Soblen.

“Carter”: Coleman, Eugene Franklin [possible spy] (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Carter, Edward C.: General Secretary of the Institute for Pacific Relations and chairman of the Russian War Relief Fund.

Carter of the Institute of Pacific Affairs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Carthage”: Washington (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Carthage” [Karfagen] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Washington, DC.  “Carthage” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Washington.

Carton, Martinez (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Caruso, Enrico: Well-known Italian opera tenor.

Casa Italiana: Italian cultural institution.

“Casada”: Kasada: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Casanova Subercaseaux, Christian”: Carlos [Karlos]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cashier” [Kassir] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Dexter White (prior to change to “Jurist” in 1941).

Cashier (Kassir) =  White, Harry Dexter  probably in 1939 [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Cassidy, journalist (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Castle, William R.: Under Secretary of State and Ambassador to Japan in the Herbert Hoover Administration.

“Castor” [Bobrik]: See “Beaver-Cloth.

“Cat” [Ket] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Mary Price in August 1944.

“Catalyst”: Katalizaton: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Catalyst” [Katalizator] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, scientific source, involved in radioactivity.  An immigrant, likely Russian, daughters in USSR in 1942, studied in Germany, friend of physicist Aristid Victorovich Grosse, knows George Gamow.  “Catalyst” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified.[99]

“Catcher” [Lovets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Russian immigrant, former insurance agent.

Catherine: Name by which Bentley knew Helen Lowry [source Bentley FBI statement]

“Cathode” [Katod] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, XY Line scientific-technological intelligence, mid-30s.

“Cautious” [Ostorozhny] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Julius J. Joseph. “Cautious” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Julius Joseph.[100]

“Cautious” [Ostorozhny]: Joseph, Julius J.  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cavalryman” [Kavalerist] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sergey Kurnakov prior to September 1944.  Kurnakov, a Russian immigrant, wrote on military matter for the CPUSA-aligned journal Ruski Golos [Russian Voice]. Kurnakov is not named as “Cavalryman” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks, but is identified as a writer for Ruski Golos and “Cavalryman” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Sergey Kurnakov.  Venona also shows that Kurnakov’s cover name “Cavalryman” was was later changed to “Beck”.[101] 

“Cavalryman”: Kavalerist: Kurnakov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

CC CPSU: Central Committee, Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

CC VKP(b): Central Committee, All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik): Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Palace”.

Cde.: comrade.

“Cecil” [Sesil'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bluma Carp, 1935.

“Cecil” [Sesil'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Lauchlin Currie, 1944.

“Cedar”: Perry, Burton (Borton Perri) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Cedar” [“Sedar”]  (cover name in the Venona decryptions): Burton Perry in 1944.[102]

“Center”: KGB HQ in Moscow. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Center [Tsentr]: KGB tradecraft term for its headquarters in Moscow.

Centkiwicz, Stanislaw (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Central Committee, All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks): Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Palace”.

Central Institute on Atomic Research, GDR.

Central Negro Youth Union of America [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

“Cerberus”: Tserber: unidentified cover name [or transliteration of surname such as Cerber or Zerber] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cerberus” [Tserber]  and “Cerberus’s” wife (cover name in Vassiliev Notebooks): Likely Philip and Mary Jane Keeney.  “Cerberus” and wife are described as former GRU agents with some prior connection to OSS.  “Cerebus’s” wife was described as obtaining a job in the UN Secretariat the latter half of 1948.  “Cerberus” also appeared in the Venona decryptions in 1945 as an unidentified GRU agent who may have lost touch with GRU.  The Keeneys were recruited by GRU in 1940 and shifted to KGB in 1945.  Philip had worked for OSS for a time and Mary Jane took a post with the U.N. in June 1948.[103] 

Chabanov, Konstantin A.: See Chugunov, Konstantin A.

Chabot  (ship) [source Venona]

Chadwick, James: Senior British atomic scientist in the bomb project.

Chaliapin, Boris: Described as the son of the Russian opera singer Feodor Chaliapin.

Chalmers, Henry: U.S. commerce Department official, early 1930s.

Cham, Michael K.: Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence.  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Spline” until October 1944 then “Noise”.  “Spline” and “Noise” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source in the aviation industry for which there were several candidates, all of which were redacted.[104]  

“Chamber” [Palata] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Department of Justice, listed in a table of cover names circa November 1944. 

“Chamber” [Palata] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Bureau of Standards, listed in one marginal reference to a January 1945 document.[105]

Chamberlain, William: Moscow correspondent for the Christian Science Monitor, 1922-34.

Chambers, Eve: Eve Dorf (party name) [source Chambers Witness]

Chambers, Whittaker: Soviet intelligence source/agent chiefly for a GRU linked CPUSA based network in Washington in the mid-1930s.  Dropped out 1938, partial disclosure to authorities in 1939 but no full disclosure until the end of 1948.  Discussed his activities in a detailed autobiography.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Karl”.[106]   Candidate for the pseudonym Robert Zelnis.

“Chambers, Whittaker”: Karl: Harold Phillips: Lloyd Cantwell: David Breen: Arthur Dwyer 

Chancey, Martin: Senior member of the Maryland CPUSA. 

Chandler, Albert (Happy): Commissioner of Major League Baseball.

“Channel-pilot” / “Lotsman”: Henry Wallace (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chap”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chap” [“Chep] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Zalmond David Franklin.  “Chap” was identified in the Venona decryptions under “Chap” and “Chen” as Salmond Franklin, a variant spelling of Zalmond Franklin.[107]

Chapa, Esther: Lata, former wife of Rosendo Gomez Lorenzo (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Chapaj” [or “Chapay”]: Klimenkov, Petr Vasilevich  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Chaplin, Charlie: World famous motion picture comic of the 1920s and 1930s.

Char... unidentified name, may be real or cover. possibley Charles Flato. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Charles”: Charls: Charlz: Klaus Fuchs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Charles”: Fuchs, Klaus [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell]

“Charles”: Fuchs, Klaus  [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Charles”: Klaus Fuchs [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

“Charles”: Klaus Fuchs [source Sudoplatov]

“Charles” [Charl'z] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Klaus Fuchs starting in October 1944. “Charles” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Fuchs.[108]  “Charles” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Fuchs.

Charles, Frieda: wife of Bert Cochran [source Venona]

Charley: See Charlie.

Charli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Charlie”. (Alternative translation: Charley)

Charli 7” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Charlie 7”.

“Charlie”: Cedric Belfrage [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Charlie”: Leon Minster [source Chambers Witness]

“Charlie 7” [Charli-7] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, NY station mid-1930s (may be same as one of the other 1930 Charlies).  References to in 1937.

“Charlie” [Charli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Cedric Belfrage, 1944. “Charlie” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but the context would fit Belfrage.[109]  “Charlie” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Belfrage.

“Charlie” [Charli]: unidentified Soviet intelligence contact, described as Browder’s courier in 1942.

“Charlie” [Charli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent/officer 1931, used against Trotskyists.

“Charlie” [Charli] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Chief of the London KGB station in 1935.

“Charlie” [Charli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence, consultent for Du Pont, chemist 1930s. References to in 1934, 1938.

Charlie [Charli]: Pseudonym used by Joseph Katz in 1944 and 1945.[110][111]

“Charlie” [Charli]: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Charl'z” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Charles”.

“Charon”: Kharon: Grigory Khejfets [Kheifetz or Keifits of Kheifets] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Charon” [Kharon] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer Grigory Kheifets. “Charon” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kheifets.

Chase, Charles F.: John Sherman’s fake passport name [source Chambers Witness]

Chase, Joseph, Lt. j.g. assistant naval attache in Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Chatsky, ?: GPU chief at Amtorg, 1929.

“Chauffeur” [Shofer] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1939.  Likely technological intelligence.

Chautemps, Camille: French political figure.

Chavycha (ship) [source Venona]

Chaynaya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Tea Shop” (Alternative translation: “Tea Room”).

“Cheetah” [Chita] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Seattle, maritime and Naval intelligence.  Has three sons.  References to in 1936-1939.   “Cheetah” (as “Chita”) appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified contact on the Moscow-San Francisco channel in 1944, but it is uncertain if this 1944 “Cheetah” is “Cheetah” of the mid-1930s.

Cheka: Vserossiyskaya Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya po Borbe s Kontr Revolyutsiyey i Sabotzzhem [All-Russian Extraordinary Commission to Combat Counterrevolution and Sabotage].

Chekh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Czech”.

“Chekh”: Czech: Menaker, Robert Owen (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chekh”: Czech: Soble, Jack  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chekhov”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chekists (KGB jargon): KGB personnel, particularly officers. 

“Chekov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Chemist”: Khinik: unidentified cover name, probably Kamenev, Ivan Efimovich  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chemist” [Khimik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Oppenheimer, September 1944.

“Chen”: redacted in 1943: Zalmond David Franklin in 1944?? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chen”: Zalmond David Franklin in 1944?? [alternative translation of Chap?] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chen, Hansheng: Covert agent of the Communist Party of China from 1920s to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949.  Chen operated in the United States in the 1930s.[112]  Also known as Hanshen Chen and Henshen Chen.

Chen: See “Chap”.

Chep” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Chap”.

Cherkasov, ?: KGB officer, 1945.

Chernigovskij (on ship Emba)

Chernikov, ?: White Russian leader, BRP activist.

Chernin, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chernousanov (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Chernousov, Ivan Pavlovich: Crew on the Soviet tanker “Azerbaijan”.

Chernov, Victor   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Cherny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Black”.

“Chernyakova or Chernyaova (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Chernyj” / “Black”: Thomas L. Black (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chernyj, S.I”.: Kirillov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Chernyshevskij (ship) [source Venona]

Chertok, ?: Described as a Zionist leader in 1939.

“hertova: See Sara Weber.

“Chess Knight (Kon’)”: Siquiros, Jose David Alfaro (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Chess Player”: Polish Jewish agent West Coast U.S., dentist [source Sudoplatov]

“Chessplayer” or “Chess Player”: Polish Jewish dentist in San Francisco, KGB agent [source Damaskin Harris]

Chester” (party name used as a cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bernard Schuster.  “Chester” was Schuster prior to June 1943 when KGB replaced “Chester” with “Echo”, but “Chester” occasionally was still used later, likely because “Chester” remained Schuster’s party name.  “Chester” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Schuster.[113]

Chester” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Oppenheimer in 1944 and 1945.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: changed to “Yew” after KGB realized confusion with “Chester”/Bernard Schuster.

“Chester”: Bernard Schuster’s party name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [source Feklisov ]

Chester Valley (ship) [source Venona]

“Cheta”: Pair/Couple: Fisher, Nicholas and Maria (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chetverka”: foursome: four KGB students (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chetvertushkin, B. A.: Described as connected to the Tchaikovsky Hall in Moscow in 1965.

Chiang Kai Shek, Madame [source Venona]

Chiang Kai-Shek (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chiang Kai-shek: Leader of of the Nationalist Chinese government.

Chicago Grain Exchange.

Chichayev, I.: KGB liaison with OSS in London, 1944.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “John”.

Chicherin, Georgy Vasilyevich: Bolshevik leader, People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs,1918 -1930.

“Chief”: unidentified cover name, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chief Administration on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy: Soviet nuclear research agency.

Chief Department of the Civil Air Fleet, USSR: GUGVF

“Chief” [Shef] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Nikolay Novikov in 1945.

Chikirisov,  ?: Militia (Police) Lieutenant, 1942.

Chikov, V.V.: Described as Amtorg official, 1920s.

Child, C.M. biologist CA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Childs, Jacob ‘Jack’: Mid-level CPUSA cadre, involved in its covert apparatus.[114]   Husband of Rosalyn.  Possible candidate for “Olsen”.

Childs, James R. [Charge d’affairs] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Childs, Morris, possibly Olsen in Venona, not identified in NSA/FBI notes

Childs, Morris: Senior CPUSA official.  District organizer (head) of the Chicago area Communist Party from 1938 to 1945.[115]  Candidate for “Olsen”.

Childs, Rosalyn Pearl: Wife of Jack Childs.  Candidate for party name/cover name Rose Olsen and cover name “Phlox”.   Rosalyn Pearl Citron worked for the Comintern in Moscow from 1936 to 1938 and upon return to the U.S. as a contact between the CPUSA headquarters and its covert arm in where she met and married Jack Childs in 1940. 

Chimilowski, Joseph: Alternate spelling for Joseph Chmilevski.

Chinovnik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Official”.

Chio” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cio”.[116]

Chipchin, Nissen or Nelson  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chita” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cheetah”.

“Chita”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Chivin, ?: an operative of Yakov Serebryansky’s special operations (sabotage, kidnapping and assassination) group.  Refused to return to the USSR.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Smith” in 1930s.

Chizh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Siskin”.  The chizh is a Eurasian finch known as a siskin in English.

Chizhakov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Chizhov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

ChK: Cheka.

Chkalov, V.  (ship) [source Venona]

Chmilevski, Joseph: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  (Alternate spelling: Chimilowski, Joseph)   Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Relay” prior to September1944, then “Serb”.  “Relay” and “Serb” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. 

“Chord” [Akkord] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): the Morros/Stern music company project.

Chou En-Lai (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chrome Yellow” [Kron] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Abraham Brothman. 

“Chrome Yellow” / “Chrome Pigment”: Kron: redacted  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chuck: party name of Charles Kramer, 1945.

Chugaj: Soviet at “Plant” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chugunov, Konstantin. A.: KGB officer.   (Also known as Konstantin A. Shabanov or Chabanov).  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Shah”.

Chupikova, Ekaterina [Lykyanov’s mother-in-law] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Churchill, Winston: British Prime Minister.  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boar”, “Pere” (circa 1944).

Churchill, Winston: “Boar” also “Per”/“Peer” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chuzhin, Ivan Afanasevich”: Afanasev (on ship Litke) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Ciechanowski, Jan: Ambassador of the Polish government-in-exile in the U.S. in WWII.

C-II” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): “S-2”.

“Cio” [Chio]: Mildred Price in 1944.

CIO, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Ciokloxa, Adam  Polish Socialist on Polish National Council in London, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

CIO-PAC: See CIO-Political Action Committee

CIO-Political Action Committee: political arm of the Congress on Industrial Organizations.

“Circle”: Krug: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Circle” [Krug] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Silvermaster apparatus.

“Circus” [Tsirk] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Department of State, 1939-1940.

Civil Affairs Division: Department of War and U.S. Army organization overseeing occupation and civil-military relations in theaters of operations.

Civil Service Commission, U.S.

Clabb, ?: Described as second secretary of the US Embassy in Chungking, 1942-43

CLAC: Combined Liberation Areas Committee

“Clan” [Klan] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Cliveden Set (U.S.)

Clarence, John: Described as journalist for ADN and author of or chief source of an article about Klaus Fuchs in the Empire News in 1959.

“Clarion”: unidentified , / (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

“Clark”: Gouzenko, Igor (Canadian line, [West Venona])

“Clark” or “Clarke” [Klark]: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

Clark, D. [Clarke, Delbert, bureau Manager of NYT in DC] [source Venona]

Clark, D. Worth: U.S. Senator, 1939-1945 (D. Idaho)

Clark, Lance: Vincent Reno party name  [source Chambers Witness]

Clark, Mark General (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Clark, Mark: U.S Army general in WWII and President Truman’s representative to the Vatican in 1951.

Clark, Tom, Attorney General (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Clark, Tom C.: U.S. Attorney General, 1945-1949.

Clarke, Delbert [Clark, D. ), bureau Manager of NYT in DC] [source Venona]

Clark-Kerr, Archibald (1st Baron Inverchapel): British diplomat, ambassador to Moscow in WWII, ambassador to the U.S. in the late 1940s.

“Claude”: Clayton, Walter S. [Australian line] [West Venona]

“Claude” [Klod] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer, NY station, 1948.   “Claude” is described as directly supervising Morris and Lona Cohen.  Yury Sokolov is identified as the KGB officer directly supervising the Cohens in this period in Albright and Kunstel’s Bombshell and, consequently Sokokov is a candidate for “Claude”.[117]

Clay, Lucius D.: U.S. Army General, Military Governor, American sector of occupied Germany.

Clay, Marjorie: Wife of General Lucius Clay. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Missis”.

Clayton, ? U.S. Army officer member of  “The Twelve Apostles” [source Venona]

Clayton, W., assistant to the Secretary of State (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Clayton, William Lockhart: Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, DOS, 1944-45

“Clemence” ( Clemens ): Klemens: “Lee” / “Li”: unidentified, redacted  possibly Johanna Becker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona][West treats Clemens and Lee as different persons [West Venona]

“Clemence” [Klemens] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, cover named changed to “Lee” in September 1944.  (Alternative translation: Clemens)  “Clemence” was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent but the name was redacted.  “Clemence” in the Venona decryptions was changed to “Lee” in September 1944.[118]   Johanna Becker is a candidate for “Clemence” and “Lee”.

Clements, F. biologist CA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Clerk [Chinovnik]: See “Official”.

“Clever Girl” [Umnitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Elizabeth Bentley, circa 1940 until August 1944. (Alternative translations Miss Wise, Smart Girl, Good Girl)  “Clever Girl” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Bentley.

“Clever Girl” [Umnitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified, 1934 cover name of the wife of the director of General Electric.  Russian, married him in the Soviet Union.

“Clever Girl”, “Smart Girl”, “Good Girl”: Umnitsa: Bentley, Elizabeth (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Cliveden Set: Label created by British Communist journalists and accepted widely of a conspiratorial aristocratic appeasement-minded and pro-German social network.  Named for Cliveden, the country home of Nancy Astor (Viscountess Astor), one of the alleged appeasement-minded arristocrats.

“Club”: section of U.S. Justice Dept. dealing with USSR (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Club” [Klub] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Justice Department, U.S., especially the internal security section of the Justice Department.

Club (party name): CPUSA, 1946.  Club in reference to the CPUSA was used in an autobiography written by Harry Magdoff in 1946.

“Coal” [Ugol'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): OSS London station cover name for British SIS, 1945.

“Coast”: unidentified name for a place  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Coca-Cola company: “Ro”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Cochran, Bert, aka Alexander Goldfarb, E. R. Frank, Herb Coulton, Bert Coltrell, SWP leader, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Codovilla (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Coe, Charles J.: Also known as Bob Coe and Robert Coe.   Secret Communist activist.  President of Harold Ware’s Communist-front Farm Research Incorporated, edited its publication, “Facts for Farmers”, wrote for the CPUSA’s Political Affairs under the pseudonym Robert Digby and appeared in the Daily Worker as late as February 1950.[119]

Coe, K.V.: Identified as someone Harold Glasser had know before 1945.

Coe, Robert D.: State Department official, late 1930s.

Coe, Virginius Frank: Soviet intelligence source.  Known as Frank Coe.  On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source.  Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Peak”.[120]

Coe, Virginius Frank: “Peak” / “Pik”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Coffee, John: U.S. Representative (D. WA).

Coffin: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Cogswell, Virginia: Girlfriend of Fritz Kuhn recruited as a source by Samuel Dickstein.  Cogswell was a witness in New York state’s 1939 prosecution, conviction, and imprisonment of Kuhn for financial irregulars.  Also known as Virginia Overshiner.

“Cohen”: Scottish, and Chambers thought him a CI reprsentative  [source Chambers Witness]

Cohen, ?: Golos recommended for recruitment on technical line in 1942.

Cohen, Benjamin: New Deal advisor, State Department official, 1945.

Cohen, Jack: Described as a student Communist at Oxford in the mid-1930s. 

Cohen, Lona: KGB liaison agent [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Cohen, Lona: “Lesle” [Lesley Lesli] [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Cohen, Lona: Lesli [Leslie] [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell]

Cohen, Lona: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  American, secret Communist.  Birth name Petka.  Wife of Morris Cohen.  Convicted of espionage in Great Britain and later exchanged for a British subject held by the USSR.[121]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Leslie”.

Cohen, Morris: “Louis” / “Volunteer” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Cohen, Morris: “Volunteer” [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell]

Cohen, Morris, (1910-1995): “Louis”: Israel Altman

Cohen, Morris: Soviet intelligence source/agent. American, secret Communist.  Convicted of espionage in Great Britain and later exchanged for a British subject held by the USSR.[122]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Volunteer”.

Cohen, Sidney: Harold Glasser's brother-in-law.

Cohen, Solomon: Described as an assistant of Joseph Brodsky.

Cole, GDH (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Coleman, Eugene Franklin: “Carter” (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Coleman, Frederick William Backus: U.S. Minister, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, 1920s.

Collado, Emilio: Economist and international finance specialist,  Senior official first at the Treasury and later at DOS.

Collard, Dudley: British attorney.

“Colleague” [Kollega] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bella Joseph.  Wife of Julius Joseph and employed in the photographic section of OSS.  “Colleague” appeared in the Venona decryptions as the unidentified cover name of someone in a photographic section of an unidentified agency and is compatible with Bella Joseph.[123]

“Colleague”: Carl Marzani [West Venona]

“Colleague”: Kollega: unidentified name works in the photographic section pictorial division [JEH: NSA/FBI footnote assumes this is reference to OWI photographic section, but OSS had a photographic section too] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Colleagues” [Kollegi] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB file name for political contacts in Washington.

Collins, Henry: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Secret Communist, mid-level official in a variety of agencies in the 1930s and 1940s.  Identified by Chambers as a member of the original “Ware group” covert CPUSA unit.  Identified as active in the CPUSA covert arm by Hope Hale Davis, Nathaniel Weyl, and others.[124]   Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “105th”. 

Collins, J. Lawton: Senior American Army general.

Colodny, Hyman: Member of “Vendor’s” CPUSA espionage group. Activist in CPUSA Washington, DC in early 1940s.

Columbie (ship) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Combat Information Center (journal): Internal U.S. Army journal.

“Combat: See “Boy”.

“Combine”: Kombinat: People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Combined Liberation Areas Committee: U.S. Department of State committee.

Comintern: see Communist International.

Comite des Forges (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Commerce, Department of, U.S.. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tea Shop”.

“Commerce Department”: Tea Shop (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Committee of Civil Liberties: Reference to the 1936-1941 Subcommittee Investigating Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor (chaired by Senator William La Follette) of the U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor.  Also known as the La Follette committee. 

Committee of Free Germans [source Venona]

Committee of Information: In the fall of 1947 the MGB foreign intelligence directorate was combined with the foreign intelligence arm of Soviet military intelligence (GRU) to form a combined foreign intelligence agency, the Committee of Information (KI).  The MGB remained as a separate agency but with only domestic responsibilities.  However, in the summer of 1948 many of the military personnel in KI were returned to the Soviet general staff to reconstitute a foreign military intelligence arm and reconstitute GRU as a foreign intelligence agency.  KI sections dealing with the new Soviet dominated Eastern European regimes as well as Soviet émigrés were returned to the MGB in late 1948.  Finally, in 1951 the KI’s foreign intelligence functions were returned to the MGB, and the latter evolved into the KGB in 1954. 

Committee of Liberation (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Committee on Cultural Liaisons with Foreign Countries, USSR.

Committee on Emigration: Likely a reference to the U.S. House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization.

Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, U.S. Senate: Chaired by Senator Nye.  Also known as the Nye Committee

Commonweal magazine (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Communist, Communists: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fellowcountryman”, “Fellowcountrymen”.

Communist International Youth (journal): likely a garbled title for a journal associated with the Young Communist International.

Communist International: Also known as Comintern.

Communist International”: Big House (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Communist Party, USA: CPUSA.  Also know as American Communist Party, Comparty, CP. and ACP.  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fraternal”, “Fellowcountrymen organization”, “Club”, “Brothers”.

Communist, The (journal): theoretical journal of the CPUSA, predecessor to Political Affairs.

Comorera, Juan (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Comparty: Communist Party.

“Competitors”: hostile intelligence agency  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Competitors (tradecraft term): KGB term for intelligence officers or the intelligence and security agencies of any nation regarded as hostile or potentially hostile.

“Complex” [Kombinat] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Service and Shipping Corporation, 1943-1945,

“Complex” [Kombinat] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade, USSR (NKVT) in 1941. 

Compton, Arthur (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Compton, Arthur: Senior scientist involved in the Manhattan atomic project, directed the “Metallurgical Laboratory” at the University of Chicago where the first atomic pile with a self-sustaining atomic reaction was achieved.

Comrade X: KGB report reference to GRU illegal Kogan brought into the U.S. covertly by ship in 1941.

Conant, James B.: Chemist, president of Harvard University and chairman of the National Defense Research Committee in WWII.

Conason, Emil: New York medical doctor close to the CPUSA. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Invalid”.[125] 

“Concern” [Kontsern] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William R. Hearst.

“Concessionaire” [Kontsessioner] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Julius Hammer.

“Condenser” [Kondensator] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Likely Kenneth Richardson.  Long term technical source/agent.  “Condenser” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kenneth Richardson.

“Condenser”: Richardson, Kenneth (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Condon, Edward U.: Physicist.  Director of the National Bureau of Standards.  Briefly deputy to Oppenheimer at Los Alamos.

Conius, Boris: Son-in-law of Sergey Rachmaninoff:

Connally, Thomas: U.S. Senator (D. Texas).

Connally, Tom, Senator  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Constantine” [Konstantin] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent/source, 1945  (Alternative translation: Konstantine).

Constantinova, Katia: Variant of Konstantinova, Katerina.

“Construction ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Construction”: Spain (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Constructor” [Konstruktor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Abraham Brothman prior to October 1944. “Constructor” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Brothman.[126]

“Constructor”: Konstruktor: Abraham Brothman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Consul” [Konsul] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, early 30s.

Consulate, USSR: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Plant”.

“Contact”:: unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Continent” [possibly Australia] (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Contracting (tradecraft term): 1930s KGB term for formal recruitement, especially on the XY line.  Also know as “signing on”.

“Contractor” [Podryadchik] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945.  Likely Alexander Saffian.  “Contractor” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Alexander Saffian.[127]

“Contractor”: Podryadchik: Alexander Saffian (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Contreras, Carlos  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Cooke, Maurice Bacon: Soviet intelligence source/agent associated with Gayk Ovakimyan.  Cooke was identified as a KGB contact in Armand Feldman’s FBI file.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Octane”.

“Cookie ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Coolidge, Calvin: President of the United States, 1923-1929.

Coolidge, Harold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cooper”: Maxim: Vasily Mikhailovich Zarubin =  Zubilin [source Feklisov]

Cooper, Hugh L.: Chairman of the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce, 1932.

Cooper, K.: Described as general manager of Associated Press, 1944.

Co-optee (tradecraft term): A Soviet diplomatic, technical, or trade official) detailed to assist Soviet intelligence activities when a professional officer is not available with the appropriate skills or in the appropriate position.

“Copericus” [Kopernik]: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Coplon, Judith: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Analyst in the foreign agents registration (counter-intelligence) section of the Justice Department.  KGB sent the Comintern a vetting inquity about her.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.  She was arrested in 1949 in the act of turning over Justice Department documents to Valentin Gubichev, a Soviet intelligence agent working under the cover of employment by the United Nations.[128]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sima”.

Coplon, Judith: “Sima”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cora” [Kora] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Emma Phillips.  Soviet intelligence source/agent.  “Cora” was a cover name in the Venona decryptions whose identity was established but which NSA redacted when it released the messages.  The Venona messages indicated that “Cora” was married to another Soviet source, cover names “Roy” and “Ampere”, who was also identified but whose identify was also redacted.[129]

“Cora” [Kora]: redacted, wife of Ampere (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Corchran, ? (garbled real name): (Korkran in Russian.)  Described as a U.S. senator in 1945.  No senator in the 79th congress had a name close to this.  However, the writer of the report, KGB officer, Bodgan, referred to all members of congress as senators, for example, identifying the chairman of a U.S. House committee as a senator.   Possibly this is a reference to Representative John J. Cochran (D. Missouri).

Corcoran, Thomas: White House aide in the early New Deal, later highly influential lobbyist and lawyer with strong ties to the Democratic Party

Corcoran, Tom (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Corday, Charlotte (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Cordell”: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Cork” [Probka]: Pinsly, William (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Corneille”: Korney appears to be Soviet in the Office,: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cornet” [Kornet] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified friendly but non-recruited diplomatic source of legal KGB officer “Frank”, mid-30s.

Cornford, John: British Communist recruited for the International Brigades at Cambridge University, died in the Spanish Civil War.

“Corporal”: Kapral:: Edward Stettinius, Jr. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Corporal” [Kapral] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Edward Stettinius, Jr.  “Corporal” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Stettinius.

“Corpus” [Korpus] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Western Electric company.

“Cort”: likely Mike Cort aka  Floyd Cleveland Miller

Cosmos Club, Washington, DC..

Costigan, Howard: Head of the Washington [state] Commonwealth Federation and a secret member of the CPUSA.

Costra, Louis: unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Cot, Pierre: Daedalus [Dedal]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Cot, Pierre: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  French politician (Radical Party) who advocated strong French alliance with the USSR.  Identified by KBG defector Walter  Krivitsky as a Soviet source.  After the fall of France in 1940, Cot fled France and offered his services to the USSR via the CPUSA.  Received the Lenin Peace Prize from the USSR in 1953.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent with the cover name “Daedalus”.[130]

Council of People’s Commissars, USSR.

Council on Foreign Relations, USA.

“Country”: Strana: USA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Country House”: Dacha: U.S. embassy, Moscow.  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Country” [Strana] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): USA.  “Country” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the USA.

“Countryside” [Derevnya] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified but likely Mexico.  “Countryside” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Mexico.

“Countryside”: Mexico (Countryside  is Derevnya in Russian ) (KGB Mexico City line)  [source Venona]

“Couple’ or ’Pair”: ’Cheta’: Fisher, Nicholas and Maria (KGB line) [source Venona]

Courageous [Smel'y]: See “Plucky”.

“Courier” [Kur'er] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.  An American detective, source for “Grin”/Spivak.

Couve de Murville, Maurice (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Coventry”: unidentified cover name (GRU line) [source Venona]

Cover name no. 22 twenty-two: Hogman, Captain. 

“Cowboy”: Rosal Diaz, Amaro, Spanish pro-Communist Socialist] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Coworkers (tradecraft term): Soviet military, naval and air attachés.

CPA: Communist Party of America, more formally, the CPUSA.

CPE: Communist Party of England, more formally, the CPGB.

CPGB: Communist Party of Great Britain.

CPSU: Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

“Crab” [Krab] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, head of an illegal line, 1948.

“Cradle” [Kolybel'] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): New York University.

“Cranberry” [Klyukva] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Army Security Agency, 1948.

Crandall, Harlan W.: Mid-level government official involved in the 1941 theft of Civil Service Commission records for commercial purposes.

Crane, William Edward: “Keith” [source William Crane FBI file]: Pete [source Tanenhaus Whittaker Chambers ]

Cricher, A. Lane: U.S. Commerce Department official, early 1930s

Cripple Creek  (ship) [source Venona]

Crist, William I.: British general.

“Critic”: Kritik: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Cromwell, James H.R.: American financier, husband of Doris Duke, and major Democratic Party fundraiser.

“Crook” [Zhulik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Samuel Dickstein.

Crouch, Paul: CPUSA organizer who became a FBI informant and witness.

Crouch, Sylvia: CPUSA member, wife of Paul Crouch.

“Crow”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Crow Bar”: Lom: unidentified, possibly garble of Pasha (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Crowley [Krouli] of FDIC (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Crowley, Leo, FEA head,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Crowley, Leo: Senior government war administrator, director of the Board of Economic Warfare, Foreign Economic Administration, and other posts.

“Crucian”: Karas: Ivancic, Anton  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

CSSR: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.

C/t: Cipher telegram

Cudahy, John Clarence: Senior American diplomat, 1930s.

Cummings, Homer Stille: U.S. Attorney General, 1933-39.

“Cupid”: Amur: unidentified: also “Zhannet”: Jeannette  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cupid” [Amur] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, assigned to anti-Trotsky work, 1939.  Likely Robert Sheldon Harte.  “Cupid” (under the transliterated Russian as “Amur”) was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Robert Sheldon Harte.[131]

Currie, Lauchlin: Page [Pazh]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Currie, Lauchlin: Soviet intelligence source/agent. His ties to the Washington Communist underground went back to the mid-1930s.  Chambers described him as working with the underground as a fellow traveler rather than a party member.  Adolf Berle’s 1939 notes on his conversation with Chambers have Chambers describing Currie as someone who cooperated with the underground but who “never went the whole way”. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[132]   Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Page” (1942-1946), “Cecil” (to Akmerov in 1944), “Vim” (1948).

Curry (Kerri?): unidentified, probably an American Troskyist? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Curtiss, John Sheldon  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Curtis-Wright aircraft.

Curtius, Julius: German foreign minister, 1929-1931.

Cushing, Richard James: American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. Archbishop of Boston from 1944 to 1970, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1958.

Cutting, Suydam (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cyrano” [Sirano] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Paris, 1947.

“Czech”: Chekh: Abram: Soble, Jack (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Czech”: Chekh: also “Bob”: Menaker, Robert Owen  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Czech” [Chekh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Jack Soble starting in September 1944.  “Czech” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Jack Soble.[133] 

Czernin, Ferdinand /  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

 

XXD

 

“D”.: [dd] unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“D., Mrs”. (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Harry Gold reference to Kristel Fuchs Heineman.

D work, possibly sabotage from Diversiya   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

D’ya... (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

D'Abernon, Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount D'Abernon: British politician, diplomat, and writer.

Dacha” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U. S. embassy in Moscow 1943.

“Daedalus” [Dedal]: Pierre Cot (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Daily Worker (newspaper): CPUSA daily newspaper.

Daimler-Benz.

Dajton: Dighton: [GRU cipher clerk] [source Venona]

Dak” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Described as Trotskyist, potential target of cultivation.  Likely James Cannon.  “Dak” was identified in the Venona decryptions as James Cannon.[134] 

“Dak”: James P. Cannon  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Daladier, Édouard: French political figure.

Dallin, Mrs. David J.: Lidiya Estrina (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dalstroy (ship) [source Venona]

Damanchuk, Simon: Ukrainian nationalist.

Dan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Stanley Graze.  “Dan” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but in a context that suggests Stanley Graze.[135]

“Dan”: unidentified source, possibly American in London in 1945 (U.K. KGB line) [source Venona]

Dan: unidentified [JEH: message about Russian exiles, probably real name reference to Menshevik Theodore Dan] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Danaher, John: U.S. Senator, 1939-1945 (R. CT)

“Dandy”: unidentified source (U.K. line, [West Venona])

Dangic' (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Daniel'”(cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Daniel”.

“Daniel” [Daniel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified DOS subsource of KGB source “10”/“Leo”.  Judged by KGB to be a fake source invented by “10”/“Leo” to gain more financial benefits from KGB by pocketing the subsidy paid Daniel.  Also known as “12”.

Daniel Willard (ship) [source Venona]

Daniels, Josephus: Secretary of the Navy, 1913-1921.

“Danilov”: unidentified, may be Vladimir V. Gavrilyuk (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Danya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1945.

Dar” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Gift”.[136]

“Dar”: Gift: Kasparov, Grigory (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dara” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Assisted in recruiting informants among German refugees on the West Coast.

Darcy, Samuel: Senior CPUSA leader expelled in 1944 for criticizing Earl Browder's leadership.

Dark (tradecraft term): When information is gained “in the dark” it means that the informant does not know he or she is giving the information directly to a Soviet intelligence officer.  When someone is used “in the dark” it means the intelligence officer has misled the person used as to exactly who he or she is assisting.  Someone misled into believing he or she is delivering information to the CPUSA rather than directly to the KGB is said to used “in the dark” even though the person assumed that the ultimate recipient of the information was the USSR.

Darling, Byron Thorwell: Soviet intelligence source/agent, scientific intelligence.  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Huron” until October 1944, then “Ernst” until February 1945, then it reverted to “Huron” once more.

Darling, Mrs. Byron: Soviet intelligence source/contact.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Lida”.

“Dasha”: Wicher, Maria [mother of Fora Wovschin] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dashman, Saul, Scotia NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dauber, M. of Dauber and Pine Bookshop, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Daugherty, Harry Micajah: U.S. Attorney General, 1921-1924.

“Daughter”: Voge, Marietta, née Jirku, wife of Noel Voge (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Daugs, Willi, German businessman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Davey [Unidentified]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

David (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks, a given name used as a cover name): David Smilg.

Davidson, Ben: David Benjamin (party name) [source Chambers Witness]

Davidson, Gerald: Described as OSS officer/staff.

Davies, Joseph: Businessman, U.S. ambassador to the USSR in the 1930s, advisor to President Roosevelt on Soviet matters.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ami”.

Davies, Joseph E.

Davies, Ralph  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Davila, Carol [Charles] A., Rumanian figure: “Docker” [Ducker]: “Daker” [Doker]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Davis” / “Devis” / “Dlinnyj” / “Long”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Davis” / “Devis” / “Spark”: unidentified [unclear if this is “Davis”/”Long”] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Davis” [Devis] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Norman Hight after October 1944.[137]  Davis is not directly named in Vassiliev’s notebooks as Hight.  However.  “Davis” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent whose cover name was earlier “Long”, and “Long” is identified in Vassiliev’s notebooks as Norman Hight.[138]  

“Davis” [Devis] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Valentin Borisovich Markin, illegal KGB station chief early 1930s. References to in 1933.

Davis, Elmer: Senior American journalist and chief of the Office of War Information in WWII.

Davis, James: Los Angeles police chief, 1933-1938.

Davis, Marion Berdecio born Marion or Marian Davis, married Berdecio [Marian?]: “Lou” / “Lu”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Davis, Marion: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Married name: Marion Davis Berdecio.  Davis was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence source with the cover name “Lou”.  Comintern records contain a 1944 KGB vetting inquiry about Davis.  Davis in 1944 worked on the staff of the Office of Naval Intelligence at the U.S. Embassy in Mexico and later for the Office of Inter-American Affairs in Washington.[139]  The Office of Inter-American Affairs was absorbed into the State Department in 1946, and Davis is a candidate for the cover name “Lou” that appears in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as associated with the State Department in 1946.

Davis, Norman H.: Senior American diplomat, in the mid-1930s referred to in the press as “ambassador-at-large”, although this was not an official title at the time. 

Davis: unidentified  in Portland (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Davydov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, New York KGB station 1952.

Davydov (ship) [source Venona]

Dawson, William, U.S. Ambassador to Uruguay (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Day, Stephen: U.S. Representative, 1941-1945 (R. IL)

“Dayvin”: code name for New York KGB radar source [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

D.B. (initials): Described as a representative of the Department of the Treasury sent to Moscow in 1945.

De Alba, Adolfo Orive: “Okh”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

De Frutas (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

De Gaulle: “Ras”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

de Gaulle, Charles: Leader of the Free French. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ras”.

de la Sierra, Maria: “Africa”  [Fisher network, KGB post WWII] [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

De Lacey, Hugh: U.S. Representative (D. Washington, 1945-1946), secret member of the CPUSA.

de Lozoada, Enrique S.  (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

de Paul, Santiago, son of Nelken Mansberger de Paul, (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

De Sancha, Tomas”: brother of Jose Sancha Padros (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

De Sveshnikov, Valdimir Vladimirovich: see Sveshnikov, Valdimir Vladimirovich.

De Sveshnikov, Valdimir Vladimirovich  DeSveshnikov, also see Svechnikov.  Source for Chambers & Bykov network, ballistics expert. [source William Crane FBI]

Dead drop (tradecraft term): A dead drop or dead letter box, is a location used to secretly pass items between two people, without requiring them to meet.

Deak, Frank, Columbia University and Pan-American airways  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dean, Gordon: Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1950.

Dean, Mary: Sister of Faye Glasser.

Dean, Sidney: Faye Glasser's brother-in-law.

Deane, ??: Described as head of the American Secretariat on the German occupation Control Council.

Deane, John R. (real name) and the Deane mission.  General John R. Deane headed the U.S. military mission in Moscow, 1943-1945.

Deans, Antonio Gomez: Oliver (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dear: See “Dir”.

Debs, Eugene: American Socialist leader in the early 20th century. 

Debuchi, Katsuji: Japanese ambassador to the U.S., early 1930s.

Declerc, general  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Decree”: Dekret: Lend Lease  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Decree”  (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Lend Lease program and agency, circa 1944.  “Decree” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Lend Lease.

Ded” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Grandfather”.

“Ded”: Grandfather, possibly Maksim Litvinov, Soviet Ambassador (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dedich?; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

“Dedushka”: Grandpapa: Evgeny Kiselev (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Deer: See “Dir”.

Degan, Thomas: Described as New York Police official involved in antiradical activities.

“Deighton”: contact of Irving Nelson [West Venona])

“Deighton”: Dighton: Dajton [probably GRU cipher clerk] [source Venona]

“Deka”: Sounding Board: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dekabrist (ship)

Dekanosov, Vladimir Georgievich , Head of cipher and communications of NKID] (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Dekanozov, Vladimir G.: Deputy chief of NKID, 1940-1947.

Dekret” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Decree”.

del Vayo, Julio Alvarez: Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, a Socialist (PSOE) who supported close alliance with Communists and the Soviet Union.

del Vayo, ?Oulio Alvarez, of Spain (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Delano, Luis (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Delgass, Basil: See Vasily Delgass.

Delgass, Vasily: Vice-president of Amtorg, defected 1930. Testified to Rep. Hamilton Fish’s Special Committee to Investigate Communist Activities, asserted that Amtorg was used as a cover for espionage. Also know as Basil and Basilie Delgass. 

Delonier, ?: Described as Boris Morros’s banker.

Demchenko, Vasilij [Vasily]  Nikolaevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Demid” or “Demidov”: Abramvo, Aleksandr Stepanovich  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Democratic National Committee.

Dempsey, John J.: U.S. Representative (D. NM)

Denikin, Anton and Dinikinists: Tsarist Army general and leader of  anti-Bolshevik White forces in the Russian Civil War. 

Denisenko, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.

Dennis, Eugene: Ryan  [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] (

Dennis, Eugene, (Dzhin, Denis, Dennis)  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]  Dennis used a Comintern party name of “Tim Ryan”.

Dennis, Eugene: Senior CPUSA leader, second ranking leader under Earl Browder in the early 1940s, chief of the party after Browder’s fall in 1945 until 1959. Comintern and KGB records documents Dennis’s role in inserting covert Communists into OSS and OWI.[140]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Physician”.

Denny, Harold: New York Times Moscow correspondent.

“Dent”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona]

“Department”: American Russian Institute

Depo” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Depot”.

“Depot”: War Production Board (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Depot” [Depo] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): War Production Board, U.S.  “Depot” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the War Production Board.

Depres, posibly Joseph Deprez of Free French (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

“Deputy ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Deputy”: Wallace, Henry [West Venona]

“Deputy”: Zamestitel: Possibly Harry Hopkins or possibly Henry Wallace (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Deputy” [Zamestitel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Laurence Steinhardt.  References to in 1939.

Der Tog, Zionist newspaper (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Derbi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Derby”.

“Derby” [Derbi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Henry Linschitz.

Derevnya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Countryside”.

Deribas, Terenty D.: Senior KGB officer,  Executed in Stalin’s Terror, 1937.

Derivat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Derivative”.

“Derivative” [Derivat] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): N.M. Ellias.

Dern, George H.: U.S. Secretary of War, 1933-1936.

Deryabin (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Desiatka” / “The Ten” (Ten Spot, Ten-ruble note, Tenner) cover name for ten Soviet students who worked for KGB (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Designer: See “Constructor”.

Desna (ship)

Desnan (ship) [source Venona]

Despres, Emile  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Despres, Emile: Senior official in OSS economics division, later with the State Department in 1945.

Desyatym” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Tenth”.

“Detective” [Detektiv] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Martin Dies.

Detektiv” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Detective”.

Deutsch  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Deutsch, Alfred (pseudonym): Arnold Deutsch’s Austrian passport name.

Deutsch, Arnold: Senior KGB illegal officer.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Stephan”.

Devis” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Davis”.  Davis in Russian can also be spelled Deyvis.

“Devis”: Davis: also “Dlinnyj”: Long: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Devushka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Young Woman”.

“Devyatkin”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

Devyatkin, Boris: GRU officer in the US. in the late 1920s, early 1930s using the pseudonym Dick Murzin.[141]

Dewavrin, Andre Lucien Charles Daniel: Passy, Col  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dewer, ?: Describes as first secretary of the U.S. Embassy in Iran, 1950.

Dewey, Thomas: Governor of New York (1942-1954) and Republican presidential candidate in 1944 and 1948. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Kulak”.

Dewey, Tom: Fist: Kulak (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Deyvis” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Davis”.  Davis in Russian can also be spelled Devis.

“Dezhiro”: Describes as of French Mission: possibly Giraud. (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Délano, Luis Enrique, Chilean Consul in Mexico City, 1940-1947 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

d-f: delo-formulyar: card file.

Diana” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, New York station 1938. 

Diana” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified source or agent, 1942, thought to have some access to Harry Hopkins’s secretary.

Diana” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence agent, transferred to the U.S., contact established 1941, reference to in 1943.  May be the same as “Diana” 1942.

“Dick”: Dik: Bernard Schuster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Dick”: GRU officer (U.K. line, [West Venona])

“Dick” [Dik] (cover name in Venona): Bernard Schuster.

Dick or Dik [unidentified GRU cipher clerk], (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Dick (pseudonym): Elizabeth Bentley’s pseudonym for Donald Wheeler.

Dickstein, Samuel: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  U.S. Representative (D. New York, 1923-1945).  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Optant” (1937), then “Crook”.

Dickstein’s Committee: U.S. House Special Committee on Un-American Activities, 1934-1937.  Also known as the McCormack-Dickstein committee.

“Dicky” [Diki] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent 1945, a radio journalist/commentator.  Likely Johannes Steele.  “Dicky” was identified in the Venona decryptions as journalist Johannes Steele.[142]

“Dicky”: Dicki: Diki: Steele, Johannes  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dieckhoff, Heinrich: German Ambassador to the U.S., 1938.

Diehl: Birthname of Grohol, Mary: Lenson, Marianne: Gringo (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Diels, Rudolf: Protege of Hermann Goring and head of the Prussian political police (predecessor to the Gestapo) in 1933-34.

Dies, Martin: U.S. Representative (D. Texas, 1931-1945, 1953-1958), chairman of the U.S. House Special Committee on Un-American Activities (Dies committee, 1938-1944).  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Detective”.

Dietrich, Rudolf    (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Diettmar, Kurt, German commentator

Digest (journal): Unidentified journal, apparently an internal U.S. military journal of some sort.

“Dighton”: Dajton [probably GRU cipher clerk] [source Venona]

Dik” (cover name in Venona): See “Dick”.

“Dik” / “Dick”: Bernard Schuster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Diki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Dicky”.

Diktor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Announcer”.

“Diktor”  (Dictor)  or “Radio-Announcer” (Announcer): William Donovan: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Dili”: unidentified cover name [JEH; looks like Chinese Nationalist intelligence] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dimitrievich, Victor: Described as OSS officer/staff.

Dina” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): wife of Dan (Stanley Graze), Mrs. Stanley Graze.

“Dina” / “Dinah”: Mrs. Ray Gertrude Kahn (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Dinah” /  “Dina”: Mrs. Ray Gertrude Kahn (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Diplomat ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Diplomat”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mary Price from late 1941 to August 1944.  (Alternative translations: Dear, Deer).  “Dir” appeared in the Venona decryptions as Mary Price.

“Dir ”: Price, Mary Wolfe (KGB U.S. line) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Dir”: Price, Mary Wolfe (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

 “Direction Finder”: Kovoj, Anatolij [Anatoly] Vasilevich  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Directive echelon: Soviet idiom for the upper leadership apparatus of the CPSU.

“Director ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Direktsiya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): A See “dministration”. (Alternative translation: Directorate).

“Discovery”: See “Godsend”.

“Disk”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Distant Neighbors”: KGB in Naval GRU lingo [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

Division of Studies and Progress Reports: section of UNNRA.

Division of the American Republics, U.S. Department of State.

Dixon, ?, of Montelier company [source Venona]

Dlinny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Long”.

“Dlinnyj” / “Long” / “Davis”: Devis: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dmitriev, Evgenij [Evgeny] Aleksandrovich, third secretary of NY consulate, head of Couriers and Cipher office: “Si” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dmitrieva, Aleksandr Nikolaevna: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Dmitriy” or “Dmitry”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dneprostroj (ship) [source Venona]

Dobbs, Farrell, member Socialist Workers Party (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dobrokhotov, ?: Senior Soviet official, 1953.

Dobrolet: Early Soviet society promoting civil aviation.

Dobrovolsk, Nikolay Stepanovich: Described as a mentally-ill Moscow citizen.

Dobrowolski, Stefan (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Dobson: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Dock”: Navy Department  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Dock” [Dok] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Department of the Navy.  “Dock” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Navy department.

“Docker” [Ducker]: “Daker” [Doker]: Davila, Carol [Charles] A.  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Doctor” [Doktor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Maurice Frocht, early 30s.

“Doctor” [Doktor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1934 supplied false passports.

Dodd, Jr., William: “President” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Dodd, Jr., William E.: “Sitsilla”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dodd, Martha: Maiden name of Martha Dodd Stern.  See Martha Dodd Stern.

Dodd, William: Historian, Democratic party activist, U.S. ambassador to Germany, 1933-1938.

Dodd, William, jr.: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Son of Ambassador William Dodd.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[143]   Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boy” (1936-1939) and “President” (1939-1948).

Dodge, Ethel Geraldine Rockefeller (Mrs. M. Hartley Dodge): Purchased the building housing the Soviet consulate in 1946 and declined to renew the lease on terms acceptable to the USSR.

“Dodger”: Lovkach: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dog” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mastiff”.

Dok” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Dock”.

Doktor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Doctor”.  (Also see Vrach.)

Dolbin, Grigory: Soviet intelligence officer, U.S. 1946-47.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Grigory”.

“Dolchik”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Dolivet, Johanna: Described as the German wife of Louis Dolivet prior to his marriage to Beatrice Straight.

Dolivet, Louis: Brother-in-law of Michael Straight and head of the Free World Association.  Also know as Ludovici Udeanu and Ludwig Brecher.  Romanian born, naturalized French cititizen active in French Communist politics in the 1930s in association with Pierre Cot and Willi Munzenberg and a leader of La Rassemblement Universal Pour La Paix, an anti-Fascist front with strong Communist and Soviet ties.  Escaped the fall of France and came to the United States in 1940. Brother-in-law of Michael Straight.  Later a well-know figure in the Hollywood movie industry.

Dolzhenko, Anatoliy  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Home”.

“Dom”: House: unidentified  in Moscow  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dombi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Domby”.

“Domby” [Dombi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Emanuel Schwartz.

Domeratzky, Louis: U.S. Commerce Department official, early 1930s.

Domevskaya, Olga (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Don” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Koral in 1936 until August 1944.

“Don”: John Sherman [source Chambers Witness]

“Don”: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Don”: Uribe Galdeano, Vicent] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Donal'd” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Donald”.

“Donald”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

“Donald”: William Ludwig Ullmann (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Donald” [Donal'd] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Ludwig Ullmann begining in August 1944 (after “Polo”), changed to “Pilot” in September 1944. “Donald” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Ullmann.[144]

Donald, U.S. Captain, “Who is loyal to us” (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Donbass (ship) [source Venona]

Donchenko, Moisej Nikolaevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Donini, Ambrogio (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Donovan, James: Prominent New York attorney, 1960s.

Donovan, William: “Diktor”  “Radio Announcer”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Donovan, William: U.S. Army genral, organizer and commander of OSS.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Announcer”.

DOP: Delo Operativnoy Perepiski: Operational Correspondence file.

Dora” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Silvermaster.  “Dora” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Helen Silvermaster.[145]

“Dora”: Helen Witte Silvermaster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dorian” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Thomas A. Fineberg.

Dorian” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified courier 1934 between Davis’ KGB illegal station and the legal station.

Dorin” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): George Eltenton.

Dorkarkhanova: Wife of S. A. Vasilyev.

Dorn, Walter: OSS official.

Dorogov, Vasily Georgievich: Soviet intelligence officer.

Dorokhov: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Dorosi, ?,  of rubber section WPB [source Venona]

“Dorothy” [Dorotti] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mildred Price.

Dorotti” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Dorothy”.

Dorr, Russell: Senior OSS officer, Turkey.

DOS: Department of State, U.S.  Sometimes referred to in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as MID, Russian abbreviation for the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs.  In those cases, MID is translated as DOS.

“Douglas”: Duglas: Joseph Katz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Douglas aircraft company.

“Douglas” [Duglas] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joseph Katz beginning in August 1944, changed to “X” in September 1944.  “Douglas” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Katz.[146]

Douglas, Helen Gahagan: U.S. Representative (D. CA, 1945-1950.

Douglas, Lewis W.: U.S. ambassador to London, 1947-1951.

Douglas, Melvyn: Well known Hollywood actor, 1930s-1960s.  Husband of Helen Gahagan Douglas.

Dowel: See “Spline”.

Downey, Sheridan: U.S. Senator (D. CA, 1939-1951).

Doxsee, Sylvia Lorraine Callen: Sylvia Franklin: “Satyr” / “Satir”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Dozd”: Thrush: also “Akhmed”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Drachuk, P.F. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Dragon” [Drakon] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Van de Graaff.

Drakon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Dragon”.

Draper, William H., Jr.: Undersecretary of the Army, 1947-1949.

Dreyfus, U.S. Ambassador in Iran  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Drogojowski, married to Nataliya Aszkenazy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Drone” [Truten'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, subsource of “Talent”.

“Drop”: Mosely, Philip, Russian section of OSS and U.S. State Dept. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Drozd” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Thrush”.

Drozdov, Leo: Described as OSS officer/staff.

Drozdova, Mariya (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Drug” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Friend”.

“Drugg” [Friend ]: Stennes, Walther [Walter] [ appears to be KGB Tokoyo or Asian channel] cited to Courier of Russian Intelligence May 1991.  [source Schecter Sacred “Secrets]

“Drugstore” / “Apteka”: unidentified, possibly an institution , 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

DST: Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire, Frence counter-intelligence agency.

Dubki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Oaklings”.

Dubna: Russian city, cite of major Soviet nuclear research facilities.

Dubois: unidentified source (U.K. line, [West Venona])

Dubois, A.  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dubois, Josiah E., Jr.: Senior advisor to Secretary of Treasury Morgenthau.

DuBois, Josiah Ellis, Assistant the the Secretary of the Treasury, representative to Reparations Commission. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dubrovsky, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.

Duche” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sergey M. Shpigelglaz.

“Ducker”: Daker: Davila, Charles A. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Duclos, Jacques: French Communist Party leader and nominal author of a Soviet composed article in Les Cahiers du Communisme denouncing Earl Browder’s reforms of the CPUSA as ideologically unacceptable.[147]

Duga” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Arch”.

Duggan, Helen Boyd: Wife of Laurence Duggan.  Cognizant of and supported her husband’s activities of Soviet intelligence.

Duggan, Laurence: “19” in 1930s [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Duggan, Laurence: “Frank” [Frenk]: Knyaz: “Prince” / “Sherwood” [Shervud] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Duggan, Laurence: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Duggan joined the State Department in 1930 and served as Latin American Division chief, 1935-37, then chief of the Division of the American Republics (merger of the Latin American and Mexican Divisions).   On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.  Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent.  Identified as a KGB source by Hede Massing.  Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “19” (and variants “Nineteen” and “Nineteenth”) starting in 1935.  Briefly designated as “Official” by the Legal station in 1935.  Designated as “Frank” in Iskhak Akhmerov reports in 1942-1943, but also continues to be referred to as “19” in this period in other documents.  Appeared as “19” again in August 1944.  A Moscow directive changed his cover name from “19” to “Sherwood” in August 1944, then “Prince” starting in September 1944.[148]

Duggan, Stephen P.: Father of Laurence Duggan, professor at CCNY and founder of the Institute for International Education.

Duglas” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Douglas

“Duglas”: Douglas: Joseph Katz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dukanovic’ (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Duke, Doris: Wealthy heiress.

“Duke” [Gertsog] unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Dukhobors ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Dulles, Allan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dulles, Allen: Senior OSS official, later Director of Central Intelligence.

Dulles, Clover Todd: Daughter of Allen Dulles, served in OSS.

Dulles, John Foster

Dulles, John Foster: U.S. Secretary of State, 1953-1959.

Dumay, Henry: Described as correspondent of Victor Hammer, 1945-1948.

Dunaievski, Grisa (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dunaievski, Isaac”: Lar  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Duncan, Rear Admiral J. US. Naval attache Moscow, 42-43, (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Duncan: unidentified  probably Admiral J. Duncan (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Dunn, James, U.S. State Dept. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dunn, James: U.S. State Department official, foreign service officer.

Dunning, John  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dunning, John: Columbia physicist and leader of work on gaseous diffusing uranium separation.

Dunts, ?: KGB agent slated for infiltration into Germany via the battle front, late 1941.

Dunts, Karl: KGB officer or agent, worked with Harry Gold, 1936-38.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Achilles”.

Dupont, Alfred (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

DuPont Corporation

“Durant”: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Durant, William James: Prominent historian, philosopher and writer.

Duranty, Walter: New York Times Moscow correspondent in the 1930s.

Durbrow, Elbridge: Senior American diplomat, chief of DOS East European division in WWII.

Durmashkin, Ilya Lvovich: Russian immigrant to the United States, member of the Communist Party and an employee of Amtorg.  He returned to the USSR in the early 1930s and executed as a Trotskyist in 1938.[149] 

Dutch Harbour (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Dutsch, Julius (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Duval, Colonel (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Duver”: probationer in Vadim’s office (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Duya”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Duya’s son”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

D.V.: Dalniy Vostok: the Far East.

“Dvina (ship) [source Venona]

Dvoichenko-Markov, Demetrius”: Hook: Khuk (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Dvoichenko-Markov, Eufrosina”: Masha  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dvorets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Palace”.

Dwight, E.V., Jr. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Dworkin, Euzebiusz (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Dyadenko, Ivan Ivanovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Dyadya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Uncle”.

Dybenko, Pavel: Senior Red Army officer, late 1920s.

Dzerzhinsky, Felix E.: Organizer and first chief of Cheka.

Dzhanetta” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jeanette”.

Dzhek” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jack”.

“Dzhek” / “Jack”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

Dzhems” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “James”.

Dzherom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jerome”.

Dzhon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “John”.

“Dzhon”: John: also “Gudson”: Hudson: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Dzhoni” / “Johnny”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

Dzhonson” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Johnson”.

Dzhunior” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Junior”.

Dzhurma (ship) [source Venona]

Dziedzic, Frank Jones, employee of Thomas Black at National Oil Products.  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

 

XXE

 

“E-14”: unidentified  (KGB San Francisco) with E. Pugachev (ship)  [source Venona]

“Eagle”: Orel: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Eagle” [Orel] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Described as a journalist and sent to Europe.  Reference to in 1942.  “Eagle” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified source in deactivated status in 1944.[150]  The journalist Winston Burdett is a candidate for “Eagle”.   Burdett, who later testified regarding his cooperation with KGB, was a journalist, worked for the Brooklyn Eagle at the time of his recruitment, and assisted KGB in Europe from 1940 to 1942 while working as a war correspondent.

“Eagle Owl” [Filin] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Elmer Davis.

Easley, Ralph: Head of the National Civic Federation and conservative anti-Communist activist.

Eastern Airlines (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eastern Division of the I.S.: likely a reference to the Eastern Division of the German intelligence service.

Eastman, Max: A well-know radical writer in the 1910s and 1920s sympathetic to Bolshevism, associated with Leon Trotsky in the late 1920s and increasingly anti-Stalinist and anti-Communist in the 1930s and later. 

Eaton, Charles A.  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Eaton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eble, Francis Xavier A.: U.S. Commissioner of Costoms, 1929-1933.

ECFEP: European Combined Foreign Economic Policy committee.

Echelon (Soviet idiom): See Directive echelon.

“Echo”: Bernard Schuster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Echo”: Bernard Schuster [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

“Echo”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 [not “Echo”/Schuster of 1944-45] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Echo” [Ekho] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bernard Schuster beginning in June 1943.  “Echo” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Schuster.[151]

“Eck” [Ek] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Victor Perlo.

Ecker, Ira: Senior American Army Air Force general.

Eckhard, Jonis [Louis Owen Eckhard], Bell Aircraft engineer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Economist”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Ed: Party name for Edward Fitzgerald, 1940s.

Eddi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Eddie”.

“Eddie” [Eddi] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Albert Kahn.

Eddy, William A.: Senior OSS officer.

Edelman, Mary: Sister of Jacob Golos.

Eden, Anthony (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Edit” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Edith”.

“Edith” [Edit] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks, given name used as a cover name): Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Likely  Edith Tudor Hart.  “Edith” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Edith Tudor Hart.  “Edith” was identified in West and Tsarev as Edith Tudor Hart.[152]

“Edith” [Edit] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Recruited in Paris. References to in 1948.

“Editor”: Konstantin Umansky [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

“Editor” (Redaktor): Umansky or Umanskij, Konstantin A., Soviet Ambassador to Mexico] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Editorial Office” [Redaktsiya] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): TASS.  “Editorial Office” was identified in the Venona decryptions as TASS. 

“Editorial Office”: Redaktsiya: Tass  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eduard” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence liaison with Jones York, likely Emanuel Locke.  References to in 1937, 1938.[153]

“Eduard”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Edward”: unidentified source, KGB (U.K. line, [West Venona])

“Edwards” / “Black”: Gerhart Eisler, mid-30s Comintern pseudonyms [source F. Firsov]

Edwards, R. M.: Described as an official of the State Department.  KGB suspected it was a fake name in a fraudulent document.

Edwards, Robert: Left Socialist British politician.  Leader of the Independent Labour Party, a left split from the Labour Party.

Edwards, Vice Admiral Richard S.[NGRU line] [source Venona]

“Efim”: Makarov, Semen I, KGB [Australian line, West’s Venona]

Efimov, Afanasy: Described by Boris Morris as one of his Soviet intelligence officer contacts in Vienna.

“Efrem”: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Efremov, Konstantin Alekseevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Efron, David: Argentine resident in U.S. since 1932, link to Council for Pan American Democracy. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Egipko ”: unidentified name au (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Egor”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Egorichev, Capt (1st Rank) I.A. Soviet Naval Attache DC”: unidentified name five, #5: unidentified name ninety-one, #91: unidentified name ce (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Egorn”: Ejorn: Nathan Einhorn  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Ehrenburg, Ilya (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Ehrenburg, Ilya: Soviet writer.

Einhorn, Nathan: “Egorn” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Einstein, Albert: Theoretical mathematical physicist.  Described as a cousin of Hans Mayer.

Eisenberg, ?: Golos recommended Eisenberg’s recruitment on technical line in 1942.

Eisenbert, Werner (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eisenhower, Dwight: Commander of Allied forces in Western Europe, later U.S. president.

Eisenhower, Mamie: Dwight Eisenhower’s wife.

Eisenhower, Milton: Brother of President Eisenhower.

Eisler, Gerhart: “Black” / “Edwards” mid-30s Comintern pseudonyms [source F. Firsov]

Eitingon, General Leonid Aleksandrovich: “Pierre” [source Sudoplatov]

Eitingon, General Leonid Aleksandrovich: “Tom” [source Sudoplatov]

Eitingon, General Leonid Aleksandrovich (Ejtingon)]: “Tom” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Eitingon, Leonid: See Eitingon, Naum. 

Eitingon, Matthew: Executive of a New York fur company described as involved in the Robinson/Rubens passport fraud case.

Eitingon, Naum Isakyevich: More often know as Leonid Eitingon.  Soviet intelligence officer.  Used the cover name “Tom” during much of his long career that included tours in the United States and Mexico, supervision of Leon Trotsky’s murder, and other tasks. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tom”.

Ek” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Eck”.

Ekho” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Echo”.

EKOSO: Economic Conference.

“Ekspert” / “Expert”: Abraham Brothman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

EKU OGPU: Ekonomicheskoye Upravlenie (EKU), OGPU's economic directorate.

El'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fir”. (Alternative translation: Spruce)

El” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Alfred Slack prior to October 1944.  Variant of “Ell”.  “El” and “Ell” both appears as the cover name Alfred Slack in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks.  It is not clear if this was a artifact of the KGB cipher system or carelessness by whoever wrote the reports cited.  “Ell” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent whose cover name was changed to “Bir” in October 1944.[154]  See “Ell”.

“El”: unidentified cover name [Compare with El/Fir and Ell/Beer??] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“El’ Russian for Fir (Spruce)”: Keenan, Helen Grace Scott (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Elbrus (ship) [source Venona]

“Elder” [Starshy] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harold Urey.  (Alternative translation: “Senior”)

“Eldorado”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eleanor [daughter of Gertsog, Frank Iosifovich (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Electric Pole” [Polyus] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical line.   Described as employed at DuPont and a source until 1941 when investigated by FBI.  (Polyus is pole in the sense of an electric or magnetic pole and is the cover name of a technical espionage source.  To minimize confusion with Pole as someone from Poland, it is here translated as Electric Pole rather than simple as Pole.) 

“Electrician” [Elektrik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent 1940.

Elektrik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Electrician”.

“Element”: Martynenko, Stepan Filippovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Elena”: Elena Enriqueta Huerta Muzquiz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Elena”: Seda: Vazquez Gomez, Elena (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Eleron” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Aileron”.

“Eleron”: Aileron: Silverman, Abraham George  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eliacheff, Boris: “Palm” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Elias” / “Elija” / “Ilya”  unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Elitcher, Max: target of recruitment, 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Elijah” / “Elias” / “Ilya”  unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Elisha”: Kurnakov’s son (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Elizabeth, II: Queen of the United Kingdom.

“Elizarov”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Elkin”: Kalinin [probably not Tikhon Ivanovich] (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Elkina, Vera G.  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Ell” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alfred Slack prior to October 1944. Variant of “El”.  “El” and “Ell” both appears as the cover name Alfred Slack in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. It is not clear if this was a artifact of the KGB cipher system or carelessness by whoever wrote the reports cited.  “Ell” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent whose cover name was changed to “Bir” in October 1944.[155]   See “El”.

“Ell” / “L” / “Bir” / “Beer”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Ella: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Ellen”: unidentified source, GRU (U.K. line, [West Venona])

Ellenbogen, Wilhelm (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Elli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Elly”.

Ellias, N.M.: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Chemist, worked at Dupont, recruited in 1934, deactivated 1938.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Derivative”.

Ellinger, ?: Described as BEW official.

“Ellis”: unidentified , (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Elly” [Elli] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): GRU source in British intelligence identified by Igor Gouzenko.

El'man” (cover name or possible real name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Elman”.

“Elman” (cover name or possible real name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Described as a traitor by KGB in 1938.

“Elsa ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Elsa”: unidentified source, New York [West Venona]

“Elsa” [El'za] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Lowry (mid-1945)  (Alternative translation: Elza).  “Elsa” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Lowry.[156]

“Elsa” [Elza]: Lowry, Helen, wife of Akhmerov, niece of Earl Browder. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Elsa (nick name): see Poretsky, Elisabeth.

Elson, Rae: Also know as “Ray Elson.’ Bentley identified Elson as a long-time courier for the KGB who at KGB direction replaced Bentley at the United States Service and Shipping Corporation.[157]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Irma”.

Eltenton, George Charles: Soviet intelligence source/agent.[158]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Dorin”.

“Eltsov”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eltsov, D.I. [ensign in Soviet Navy] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eltsov, Junior Lt (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Elvehjem, C.A., Wisconsin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

El'za” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Elsa”.

“Elza”: Helen Lowry [source Damaskin Harris]

Elza: See “Elsa”.

Em” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Medes Grineff starting in July 1942, changed to “Zam” by October 1943.

EM: [possibly from Emigratsiya] penetration of anti-Soviet refugee societies. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Ema”: Mamlyga, Vitalij [Vitaly] Semenovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Emba (ship) [source Venona]

Embassy of the USSR: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Trust”.

Embassy of the USSR: Cover name in Venona: “Trust”.

Emelyanov, ?: An official connected to the Soviet Chief Directorate on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy.

Emelyanova, Ksenia Arkhipovna, possibly mother of Patriot (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Emerson, Edwin: American journalist, pro-German.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Star”.

Emery, Edith: Emery had been born in Hungary in 1905 and came to the U.S. in 1930 as an exchange student at Bryn Mawr and got a M.A. there in 1931 and then studied economics at the Brookings Institution.  In the U.S. she used the names Andrea Emery (her Hungarian given name was “Ondra”) and Edith Emery.  She went to Hungary in 1932 to obtain a divorce from her Hungarian husband, returned to the U.S. in 1932 and taught economics at Fordham and Bennington.  In 1933 she married Edmund Stevens and became a U.S. citizen.  They, however, divorced in 1935.  She also completed a Ph.D. in economics at Columbia and worked as an economist for the New Deal’s Resettlement Administration and later for the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  She also married Roy Hudson, a senior official of the CPUSA, in 1936.  Emery worked in the CPUSA Washington underground in the mid-1930s.  When Whittaker Chambers described the activities of his CPUSA-GRU network in the mid-1930s to the FBI, he mentioned one woman in contact with the network whose name he remembered as “Andre Embrey” and whom he described as Hungarian, the girlfriend of CPUSA offical Roy Hudson, and a secret Communist who worked for a government agency.  Chambers identified a picture of Emery as the woman he had remembered as Embrey.[159]   Candidate for the cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Squirrel”.

Emery, Edith Ondra  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Emigres: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Guests”.

“Emiliya”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]. See “Emma”.

Emir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Bukhartsev.

Emma” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Helen Lowry.  The New York KGB station proposed changing Lowry’s cover name from “Stella” to “Emma” in September 1944, but it does not appear that this change was adopted.  “Stella” continued to appear as Lowry’s cover name into 1945.  New York KGB station’s proposed cover name shifts of 2 September 1944 are in the White notebook #1, p. 55 and in the Venona decryptions 1251, New York to Moscow, 2 September 1944.  The substantive text is nearly identical, indicating that Alexander Vassiliev made his notebook entry from a copy of the cable sent to Moscow.  One minor difference between Vassiliev’s notes and the cable as deciphered by NSA is that Vassiliev’s notes have the New York station proposing changing “Stella” to “Emma” while NSA’s deciphered version has the New York station suggesting changing “Stella” to “Emiliya”.  The difference between “Emma” and “Emiliya” may be a product of a minor error in NSA’s recreation of the KGB code book.

Emmett, Beatrice: Described as a cousin of Milton Golos.  Married name Kligman.

Emory, Edith: see Emery, Edith.

“Employer”: Khosyain: Buchman, Henry [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Employer” [Khozyain]: See “Boss”.

“Emulsion” [Emul'siya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence at Eastman Kodak 1938 and as a technical intelligence source in 1943, probably aviation related.  Likely but not certainly these two “Emulsions” are the same.  “Emulsion” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified technical intelligence sources in the aviation industry in 1943. “Emulsion” changed to “Signal” in the Venona decryptions in October 1944.[160]

“Emulsion’s” brother (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938, brother of “Emulsion”.

Emul'siya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Emulsion”.

“Emulsiya”: Emulsion: also “Signal”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Endelman, Michael (pseudonym): GRU agent know to Elizabeth Bentley who used the work name “Marcel” and had American identification as Michael Endelman.[161]  Endelman is presumed to be a pseudonym.  Cover name/work name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Marcel”.

“Enemigo”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Enemy” [Vrag] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Walter Krivitsky.

Engels, ??: Described as executive officers of Telefunken, 1945.

Engels, ?: Described as a Telefunken top manager. 

“Engineer”: unidentified cover name  (possibly Jones York?) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Engineering Research Corporation.

Enigma: See “Riddle”.

“Enimego”: Unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Enk”: Unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Enormaz”: (usually “Enormos”) “Enormous”: Manhattan project: U.S. Atomic energy project and in some occurrences uranium 235. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Enormous” [Enormoz] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): cover name given to the espionage project targeting the Anglo-American atomic bomb development and the Manhattan atomic project. “Enormous” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Manhattan project.  “Enormous” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as the Manhattan project.

Enormoz” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Enormous”.

“Enormoz”: U.S. atomic bomb project [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Enthusiast (ship) [source Venona]

Entich, Otto, German businessman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Entoni” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Anthony”.

Epshteyn, Shakhne: Described as associate of Julius Hammer at Pravda.

Epstein, ?: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Steamship ticket sales agent in NY, assisted in providing fake passports.

Epstein, Israel: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Polish born, raised in China by Communist parents.  Journalist and Communist activist.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Minaev”.

Epstein, Jacob: “Harry-2” / “Harry”: Garri (KGB U.S. and Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Epstein, Julius, brother in law of Nelson Chipckin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Epstein, Mrs. Jacob: aka Wilson, Ruth: “Nona” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Epstein, Sidney: Washington Times-Herald writer.

Equitemby: Described as a major American insurance company.  Likely a spelling/translation garble.  Equitable Life Insurance is a possible candidate for the referenced company.

Ercoli (Comintern party name): Italian Communist leader Palmiro Togliatti.

Erdman, Commander, Robert Park, Feb. 43 was in charge of Liaison with Soviets crews for minesweepers bing built by Tampa Shipbuilding Corporation, head of the Natives (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Eremin”: unidentified in DC (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Ergossco” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Eric” / “Erik”: redacted: Leona Vivian Franey (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Eric”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona]

“Eric” [Erik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Engelbert Broda, 1942-44, U.K. “Eric”/Broda appears to be identical with the unidentified Soviet source “K”. in West and Tsarev and Andrew and Mitrokhin.[162]

“Eric” [Erik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer/agent, early 1930s.

“Erie”: unidentified, changed to “George” or “Leader” (a decoding problem) in October 44 then Moscow ordered changed to “Ernest” in February 1945.   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Erie” [Iri] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Paul G. Nahin.  “Erie” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified scientific source/agent.[163] 

Erik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Eric”.

“Erik”: Eric: redacted: Leona Vivian Franey (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Erikh”: unidentified, KGB source in DOS, mid 1930s [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Erlich, Leon: Soviet intelligence informant.  Elizabeth Bentley identified Erlich as a technical writer on the aviation industry paid by Jacob Golos to provide information and articles on aviation subjects.[164] 

Erlygin, Evgeny: Soviet POW interviewed by American intelligence.

Ermachenko, Captain-Lieutenant (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Erna” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence contact.  Described as traveling with “Betty”/Zarubin in 1935 to the U.S. to get passports renewed.  Very likely Vasily Zarubin’s wife, Elizabeth Zarubin.

“Ernest”: former “Erie”: unidentified cover name  changed to “George” or “Leader” [possible decoding problem) in October 44 then Moscow ordered changed to “Ernest” in February 1945.   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Ernest”: unidentified former “Huron” changed to Ernest in Oct 1944 but this was canceled by Moscow February 1945, and reverted to “Huron”.  See “Erie”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Ernest”: cover name in the Venona decryptions that appears in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks  as “Ernst”, likely a minor error by in Venona recreation of the Soviet code book.   

Erni” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ernie”.

“Ernie” [Erni] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1948.

Ernst” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Noel Field in 1936.

Ernst” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Byron Darling from October 1944 to February 1945.  In the Venona decryptions “Huron”/Darling was changed to “Ernst”/Darling in October 1944 but this was canceled by Moscow Center in February 1945, and the cover name reverted to “Huron”/Darling.[165]

Ernst” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Paul Nahin, 1945.  “Ernst” under the alternative translation as “Ernest” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified scientific source/agent (the former “Erie”) from February 1945 onward.[166]

“Ernst” or “Ernest”: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Erofey” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, London, 1946.

Ersh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ruff”.  (Ersh is Russian for a type of fish known as Ruff or Ruffe in English but also has several other meanings, including that of a mixed beer and vodka drink.)

Ervin, Charles W.: Socialist and prominent American civil libertarian, 1920s. 

“Eskulap” / “Aesculapius”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

Estonian Legion

Estrina, Lidiya”: Mrs. David J. Dallin  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Estrina, Lidiya: Former Trotskyist activist in France in the 1930s, married to David J. Dallin in the United States.

Ethridge, Mark F.: Senior American diplomat, 1945.

Etinger, ?: Described as a manager at Julius Hammer’s pencil factory.

Eugene (party name): Described as clandestine CPUSA figure in Washington, DC, in the mid-1930s known to Victor Perlo.

Euler, Rose: see Rose Browder.

“Eureka” / “Evrika”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eurofeem” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, London, 1946.

European Combined Foreign Economic Policy committee: U.S. State Department committee.

Evans” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): John Veymut.  Also spelled in the notebooks as “Veytmut” and and “Beymut”. 

Evans, Robert: Joseph Freeman pseudonym on masthead of New Masses [source Chambers Witness]

Evdokimov, Dmitri M.

“Evgenev”: Petr Nikolaevich Kubatkin, head of First (Foreign Intelligence) Chief Directorate in June 1946.   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Evgeny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1942.

Evropmar, John  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Evstratova, Varvara Vassilievna: Russian born wife of Edward Ames.

“Ewald”: Soviet intelligence officer know to Chambers: Ikal, Arnold (real name): pseudonyms Robinson, Donald: Reubens, Adolf  (Robinson/Reubens case)[167]

Ewert, Arthur: Real name German Communist and Comintern agent in Brazil in 1936 who was using the pseudonym of Harry Berger.

Excelsior newspaper (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Experimental Center Y: see Site Y.

Experimental Center X: see Site X.

Experimental Center W: see Site W.

“Expert”: Brothman [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

“Expert”: Ekspert: Brothman, Abraham: Konstruktor: Constructor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Express Messenger” [Gonets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Richard Setaro.  “Express Messenger” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Setaro.[168]

“Express Messenger [Gonets] =  redacted”: Ricardo Setaro (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eyring, H, chemist Princeton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eysu” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Heim. 

“Ezh” / “Hedgehog”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Ezhov, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Efremovich: “Zharov “

Ëmiliya”: Cover name in the Venona decryptions: See “Emiliya”.

 

 

XXXF

 

F. Dzerzhinskiy  (ship) [source Venona]

Faber” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB office, slated for illegal station chief in the U.S., 1940.

Fabergé: Cosmetics firm owned by Communist sympathizers.

Fabrika” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Factory”.

Fabritsius (ship) [source Venona]

Fabrizi, ? General: Contact of Martha Dodd in 1937.

Face, ?: Reference to a possible DOS employee in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks..  (Possibly a cover name.)

“Factory”: Amtorg  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Factory” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Cover name for the Manhattan atomic project used by Harry Gold with Klaus Fuchs.

“Factory” [Fabrika] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Amtorg.  “Factory” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Amtorg.

“Fadeev”: Shestak (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Fahy, Jack Bradley: “Maxwell” (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Failed and failures (tradecraft term): KGB idiom for a source/agent/officer who could no longer be used because they had been compromised or exposed by arrest or identification by hostile security authorities or who defected or left service without KGB permission.

Fainberg, ?: Associated with Amtorg in 1924 according to Vasily Delgass..

Fairfax-Cholmeley, Elsie: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  British wife of Israel Epstein.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Girl Friend”.

“Fairy” [Feya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938.

Fakir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Andrew Steiger prior to October 1944. “Fakir” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[169]   In the Venona decryptions, “Fakir” became “Arnold” in October 1944.  “Arnold”/Steiger does not occur in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks.

“Fakir”: Arnol: Arnold: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Falcon” [Sokol] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source, Douglas aviation draftsman 1930s.  References to in 1935, 1937, 1938.

Fall, Albert B.: U.S. Secretary of the Interior, 1921-1923.

False flag (tradecraft term): When an officer/agent induces someone to assist or provide material by pretending the destination for the material is a nation (the ‘flag’) or customer other than it really is.  For example, a technical agent working for KGB may induce a colleague to steal technical information by pretending it is commercial industrial espionage for a domestic or foreign corporate rival rather than espionage on behalf of the USSR. 

“Fan”: unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fanton” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Believed to be an error in the original for “Foton”.

Far Eastern Commission: Allied diplomatic commission established to review peace and occupation terms in Asia after the surrender of Japan.

Far Eastern Republic: Soviet republic established in former Russian Far East and Siberia in 1920, fully absorbed into the USSR in 1922.

Farish, Linn Markley: Soviet intelligence source/agent, OSS officer in Yugoslavia.  Cover name in the Venona decryptions “Attila”.

Farish, Linn Markley, senior liaison officer with Tito from September 1943, parachutist, killed 9 September 1944: Attila (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Farley”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

Farley, James: Franklin Roosevelt’s campaign manager in 1932 and later Postmaster General.

“Farm”: Foreign Economic Administration  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Farm Credit Administration, U.S.

“Farm hand” / “Batrak”: unidentified cover name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Farm” [Khutor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Foreign Economic Administration (FEA), December 1944.  “Farm” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Foreign Economic Administration.

Farm Security Administration, U.S.

Farm: See Ferma.

Farnsworth, John: Former U.S. Naval officer arrested for espionage on behalf of Japan in 1936.

Farouk I: King of Egypt.

Farrell, Michael: Described as the head of an American displaced persons agency in Austria in 1950.

Fast, Howard: Soviet intelligence contact.  Popular writer and Communist.

“Faun” [Favn] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer, 30s, New York station.

Favn” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Faun”.

Favorov, Petr Aleksandrovich, Engineer Captain-Lieutenant (NGRU line) [source Venona]

FBI: “Khata” (a peasant’s hut) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“FBI” (cover name): Meca Sanches, Fernando (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Fe...”.: partial of unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

FEA: Foreign Economic Administration, U.S.

Fedchenkoff, Benjamin J., Metropolitan of the American-Russian Orthodox Church in NY: Benjamin  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Federal Laboratories: a private U.S. armor and arms firm.

Federal Reserve Board: U.S.

Federated Press.  Also known as Federated Labor Press.  Left-wing news agency of the 1920s-1940s..

Fedichkin, D.G.: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center.

Fedor” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Gyorgi Sokolov.  (Alternative translation: Fyodor).

“Fedorov”: Terentev (on ship Emba)  (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Fedorov, Evgenij Konstantinovich, Head of Chief Directorate of the Hydro-Meteorological Service in Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Fedoseev, I.I. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Fedosimov, Pavel Ivanovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent.  Likely the real name (or diplomatic pseudonym) behind “Stepan” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks for the acting chief of the New York station 1947-1948.  Cover name “Stepan” in the Venona decryptions in 1944.[170]  In the Venona decryptions, “Stepan”/Fedosimov arrived at the New York KGB station in 1944. 

Fedosimov, Pavel Ivanovich: “Stepan” [some early Venona decryptions give Fedosimov as the real name behind “May”/”Maj” but this is an error corrected later] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fedotov, ?: Described as Bolshevik in America that Julius Hammer assisted in escaping to the Soviet Union.

Fedotov, Al. Mihkailovich: Described as someone Boris Morros met in Moscow.

Fedotov, Anton Nikolaevich   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fedotov, Leonid Nikolaevich   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fedotov, Petr V.: Senior KGB official Moscow, 1940s.  Pseudonym: Petr Vasilyevich Ivanov.

Fedotov [possibly Anton Nikolaevich Fedotov, Leonid Nikolaevich Fedotov, 3rd secretary in NY, or Vasilij [Vasily]  Fedotov, a trade official]  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fedotov, Vasilij [Vasily]   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fedya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Remington.  (Alternative translation: Ted or Teddy: Fedya is a diminutive of Fedor, and Fedor is the Russian equivalent for Theodore.)

Feinstein, Isidor: Birth name of I.F. Stone. See Stone, I.F.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pancake”.

Feis, Herbert: Senior State Department official, 1930s.

Feiz, Herbert: misspelling of Herbert Feis.

Feklisov, Alexander: “Kalistrat” / “Fomin” (source Feklisov)

Feklisov, Alexander: KGB officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Callistratus”.  “Callistratus” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Aleksandr Semenovich Fomin, the pseudonym Feklisov used when under diplomatic cover in the U.S.[171]

Feklissov, Alexander: aka Fomin, Aleksandr Semenovich, U.S. name for Feklissov: “Kalistrat” / “Callistratus”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Feldman, Armand Labis (pseudonym): Soviet intelligence officer, real name Iosif V. Volodarsky. Also know as Armand Lavis Feldman.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Brit”.

Feldman, Armand Lavis: Volodarsky, I.V.  KGB officer in the U.S. in 1930s, dropped out and moved to Canada, interned early in WWII, cooperated with Canadian RCMP to avoid deportation to USSR, RCMP turned information over to FBI. 

“Felipe”: Grigulevich, Iosif R.: “Maks” and “Arthur” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Felix”: unidentified name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fellow Travelers” [Poputchiki] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Foreigners at Soviet institutions and local Soviet citizens who are permanent residents in the country.

“Fellowcountryman” and “Fellowcontrymen” [Zemlyak, Zemlyaki] (cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Local Communists, members of the CPUSA or other fraternal Communist party/organization.  “Fellowcountryman” was identified in the Venona decryptions as a member of the CPUSA.

“Fellowcountryman party”: CPUSA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fellow-countrymen”: Zemlyaki: CPUSA members (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Felson, Milton, ( Felsen correct spelling ) IB, OSS  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Female Teacher” [Prepodavatelnitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB agent in Moscow, 1946, used to cover the Hammer family.

Ferdinand, Prince Louis: Prince of Prussia, member of the Hohenzollern family, and successor to the abolished German monarchy in the 1930s.

Ferguson, Duncan: secretary and bodyguard for Mrs. Trotsky, 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Ferma” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified institution that David Greenglass tried to get a job at in 1949.  Ferma means farm in Russian, but khutor is another Russian word that is also often translated as farm, and “Khutor” was used by KGB as the cover name for the Foreign Economic Administration, and “Khutor” was translated as “Farm” in the Venona decryptions.  Rather than confuse matters, here “Khutor” is also translated as “Farm” while “Ferma” is left in its transliterated form. 

Fermi and/or Oppenheimer: “Star” [source Sudoplatov]

Fermi, Enrico: Italian physicist, leading scientist on the Manhattan atomic project.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Vector”.

Fermi, Enrico (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fernald, M.. biologist from Cambridge, Mass. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fernandez de Castro, Jose Antonio: “Machado” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Ferra, Ricardo Jose Barcelo, Argentinian was in Garibaldi brigade in I.B.   (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Ferro” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander N. Petroff after October 1944.[172]  “Ferro” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Petroff.

“Ferro” / “Fin”: Aleksandr N. Petroff (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Ferro”: Throssell, Ric [Australian line, [West Venona]

Ferz'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Queen”.

Fetvays, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.

Feuchtwanger, Leon: Soviet intelligence source.  Refugee German writer and KGB informant on exiled Germans.

Feuer, Lewis: Philosophy instructor at CCNY. Described by Jacob Golos as source of information on FDR and Churchill in 1941.  Lewis Feuer later in life became a highly productive writer on philosophy and intellectual history.  Associated with Communist and Trotskyist circles in the 1930s and 1940s he became an ardent opponent of New Left radicalism in the 1960s and 1970s.

Feya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fairy”.

Feyn: see David Fine.

Field, Frederick Vanderbilt: Wealthy secret Communist, active in the Foreign Policy Association, the Institute for Pacific Relations, and headed the American Peace Mobilization, a Communist front group of the Nazi-Soviet Pact period.

Field, Henry [source Venona]

Field, Hermann: Brother of Noel Field.  Secretly imprisoned in Communist Poland in 1949 as part of the “Fieldist” conspiracy.  Released in 1954 when a Polish defector, Jozef Swiatlo, revealed his imprisonment.

Field, Kate: Wife of Hermann Field.  Maiden name Kate Thornycroft.

Field, Noel: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Field joined the U.S. State Department in 1926.  By 1936 he was a mid-level official working on international arms limitation negotiations and U.S. cooperation with the League of Nations. In 1936 he resigned his position in the U.S. State Department to take a post with the League of Nations.  Identified as assisting Soviet espionage KGB by defector Hede Massing and by his own statements to Hungarian Communist security police.  On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks.[173] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “17” and “Ernst”. 

Field, Philip [target for recruitment], (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Fierlinger, Captain Jan, Information officer of the Czechoslovak consulate in New York: Ofitser: Officer  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fifth line: security of Soviet merchant fleet and personnel (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fighter” / “Boets”: unidentified  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fil” / “Phil”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona]

Filger, of Dresdner Bank (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fil-Go, A. (abbreviation for A. Fil......skij of Fil...skoj (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Filin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Eagle Owl”.

Filip” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Philip”.

“Filipp”: Philip: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Film” [Plenka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent at Eastman Kodak 1938.  Richard Briggs is a likely candidate for Film.

“Filosof”: Philosopher: unidentified name  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Filov”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

“Fin” / “Ferro”: Aleksandr N. Petroff (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Finansist” / “Financier”: Joseph Muchnik  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Find”: See “Godsend”.

Fine, David: Described as lieutenant serving with the U.S. occupation government of Germany, 1945.  The family name was spelled Feyn in Russian and, in addition to Fine, alternative translations are Fein and Fane.

Fineberg, Thomas A.: Target of recruitment.  Describes as a physicist at Manhattan atomic project Los Alamos, studied at University of Chicago. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Dorian”.

Finestone, Maxwell: In 1947 Julius Rosenberg revived his WWII apparatus for the KGB but sought new contacts as well.  In 1948 Rosenberg is described as cultivating “Plumb” who was described as an active student Communist at an unidentified college.  After Julius Rosenberg was arresed, a cell mate informant told the FBI that Julius Rosenberg has identified Finestone as someone he had recruited.  Interviewed by the FBI, Finestone admitted that he had been a young Communist at Cornell University in the late 1940s and knew Julius Rosenberg but claimed he had dropped out the the party his senior year (1949) because of the pressure of school work and had no involvement in espionage.  But James Weinstein, a fellow young Communist had Cornell, stated that Finestone had told him that he had dropped out to do secret work for the party.  The FBI also developed evidence that Finestone had been associated with Alfred Sarant, a veteran member of Rosenberg’s apparatus when at Cornell, and Finestone later had lived for some months in 1949, apparently rent free since his own income was nearly non-existent, at an apartment in New York that had been the residence of Alfred Sarant, William Perl and Joel Barr (all members of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus), and a site where much of the Rosenberg group’s photographic work was performed.[174]  Candidate for the cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Plumb”.

“Fink”: Pantsyrnyj, Capt. (First Rank) Pavel A. (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Fink” [Stukach]: See “Informer”.

“Finogenov”: in the “Store” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fir”: Fir tree  (Russian El'): Keenan, Helen Grace Scott (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fir” [El'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Likely Helen Grace Scott Keenan.  Described as the secretary of French journalist Geneviève Tabouis.   “Fir” (Alternative translation: Spruce) was identified in the Venona decryptions as Helen Grace Scott Keenan.[175] 

First Chief Directorate: Foreign intelligence arm of the KGB.  See Pervoe Glavnoe Upravlenie -- PGU.

First Line: political intelligence (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fischer, Louis: An influential American journalist of the 1930s, early enthusiast for the Republican cause and for the International Brigades and covert courier for Comintern funds to Spain.

Fish, Hamilton: U.S. Representative, 1919-1945 (R. NY)

Fisher, ?: KGB agent slated for infiltration into Germany via the battle front, late 1941.

Fisher (Boyko), Nicholas and Maria: “Cheta” / “Pair”/”Couple”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fisher [Rybolov]: See “Fisherman”.

Fisher, Vilyam Genrikhovich, born William Fisher, (1903-1971) in England then taken by mother to Russia, active in Soviet intelligence since 1927, illegal rezident in U.S. 1948-1950, arrested by FBI in 1957, exchanged for Gary Powers in 1962: Mark, Martin Collins: Emil Goldfus: Rudolph Ivanovich Abel:

Fisher, Vilyam Genrikhovich, who took the name of a fellow agent Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, code name Mark [source Damaskin Harris]

“Fisherman” [Rybolov] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Stephen Urewich until September 1944.  “Fisherman”  “Rybolov”, with alternative translation as “Osprey”, appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.   “Fisherman” is not directly identified as Urevich in Vassiliev’s notebooks.  However, “Fisherman” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent later changed to “Block”.  “Block” in Vassiliev’s notebooks is identified as Stephen Urewich.  Therefore, “Fisherman” is Urewich.[176]

“Fisherman”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fisherman”: unidentified source New York [West Venona]

“Fist” / “Kulak”: Dewey, Tom  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fitin, Lt. General Pavel M., head of KGB foreign intelligence operations,: “Victor” / “Viktor”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fitin, Pavel (1907-1972), KGB chief of foreign operations 1939-1946 

Fitin, Pavel: Senior KGB officer, chief of  KGB foreign intelligence in WWII.  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Victor”.

Fitzgerald, Edward: Father of source Edward Fitzgerald.

Fitzgerald, Edward: Soviet intelligence source/agent.[177]  Secret Communist and economist with the WPB and the FEA.  Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Perlo espionage group. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ted”. 

Fitzgerald, Edward J.: “Ted”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fitzgerald, Edward Penrose: “Greyhead” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Fitzgerald, Mary: Mother of source Edward Fitzgerald.

Fizkul'turniki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Gymnasts” (Alternative translations: Physical Fitness Enthuiasts, Athletes, Physical culturalists).

Flanagan, Hallie: Drama teacher at Vassar.

Flato, Charles  [source Venona]

Flato, Charles: Soviet intelligence source/agent. On the staff of the Board of Economic Warfare in WWII and later on the Senate Labor and Public Welfare committee.  Flato was identified in the Venona decryptions as a KGB source.  KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about him in 1944.[178]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boy”.  

“Fledgling” [Ptenets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Richard Koral (Alternative translation: Nestling).

Fleischman: Family owners of Fleischman’s Yeast company.

Fleisher, ?: Described as OSS officer/staff.

Fleming, president of Association of Terrestrial Magnetism [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

“Floke” or “Floks” or “Phloke” or “Phlox”: Rose Olson (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Floks” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Phlox”.

Flora” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ruth Rivkin, staff of UNRRA.  “Flora” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified cover name reporting on UNRRA.[179]

“Flora”: unidentified cover name or possible Flora Wovschin (KGB U.S. line)

Flosdorf, Earl W.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Outpost”.

Flowers, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley: High profile Communist organizer in the 1920s and 1930s.

Fochs: see Fox.

Fogel'” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Fogel”.

“Fogel” / “Vogel” / “Pers” / “Persian”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fogel” [Fogel'] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Russell McNutt prior to September 1944.  “Fogel” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[180]  

Foks: See Fox.

“Foks” / “Fox”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Foley, ?: Described as U.S. Consul General, 1941.

Folkoff (Folkov), Isaac”: Uncle (Dyadya) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Folkoff, Isaac: Senior member of the California Communist party and West Cost liaison between the KGB and the CPUSA.  On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list (with his name spelled “Volkov”) of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks,  Folkoff was identified in the Venona decryptions as assisting Soviet espionage and having the cover name of “Uncle”.[181]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Uncle”.

“Fomin”: unidentified, radio operator with marine transport cover (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fomin, Aleksandr: Pseudonym used by Alexander Feklisov when in the U.S. under diplomatic cover.

Fomin, Aleksandr Semenovich [Feklissov]: “Kalistrat” / “Callistratus”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Food Store” [Gastronom] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade, USSR. (Narodny Komissariat Vneshney Torgovli: NKVT).

For Russia: Described as a newspapers published by NANG’s leadership in Bulgaria.

Forbes: unidentified  (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Foreign Agents Registration Section: Section of U.S. Justice Department involved in counter-espionage operations.

Foreign Economic Administration, U.S. (FEA): Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Villa” (1942 to November 1944, “Farm” (December 1944-)

Foreign Office, U.K.: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Back Street”.

Foreign Policy Association.

“Forest” / “Lesovia”: Canada  (GRU line) [source Venona]

Forge: See “Gorn”.

Formayster, ?: GPU counterintelligence officer, 1924.

Formidable (ship) [source Venona]

Forpost” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Outpost”.

Forrestal, James: U.S. Secretary of the Navy, 1944-1947, Secretary of Defense, 1947-1949.

Forward: Jewish newpaper with a Social Democratic orientation.

Fosdick, ?: Probably Henry Emerson Fosdick, prominent liberal Baptist minister.

Foster, Jane: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Concealed Communist.  Foster worked for the Board of Economic Warfare in 1942 and then in the Indonesian section of the Office of Strategic Services from 1943 to 1945.  Foster was identified in the Venona decryptions as an Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Indicted for espionage as part of the Sobel apparatus but was abroad at the time of indictment and refused to return for trial.  Also known as Jane Foster Zlatowski.[182]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Slang”.

Foster, Jane [Zlatowski], in Netherlands Study Unit, to BEW, to OSS: “Slang”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Foton” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Photon”.

“Foton”  or “Photon”; Pritomanov, Leonid G. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fotos..”.: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

Foulkes, Charles: Canadian general.

“Foursome” / “Chetverka”: four KGB students (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fourth line: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fovitsky, ?: Described as editor of Novoye Russkoye Slovo and rector of the Russian People’s University.

“Fowler”: Lovestoneist delegate to CI congress [source Chambers Witness]

Fowler, Glenn: Scientist involved in the Manhattan atomic project.

“Fox” / “Foks”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 0 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fox, ?: Associated with Amtorg in 1924 according to Vasily Delgass.

Fox, ?: (Foks in Russian)  Described as a State Department official, 1945. (Alternative translation: Fochs)

Foxcroft School: Elite girls’ preparatory school.

Fraina, Louis: Leading figure in the creation of the Communist Party of America in 1919 and its first international secretary and representative to the Comintern. 

Francy, Leona Oliver: Spelling error for Franey, Leona Oliver. 

François-Poncet, André: French ambassador to Germany, 1931-1938.

Franey, Leona Oliver: Chief librarian at Bell Aircraft.  She and her husband were in the early stages of recruitment by KGB when approached by FBI and agreed to work as double agents.  Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.   Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Zero” until October 1944, then “Eric”.[183]

Franey, Leona Vivian, Librarian at Bell Aircraft: “Nul” / “ Zero” / “Erik” or “Erika” / “Eric” or “Erica” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Frank” and Frank’s wife (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent and wife (contact), 1948.  Warned to leave USA when FBI surveillance noticed.

Frank” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Laurence Duggan’s designation in reports of “Mer” in 1942-1943.  “Frank” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Duggan.[184]  “Frank” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Duggan.

Frank” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer 1933-1935.

“Frank ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Frank”: Duggan, Laurence [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

“Frank” / “Frenk”: Laurence Duggan  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Frank”: Moosen, Arthur (GRU line) [source Venona]

“Frank”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Frank, Karl: Paul Hagen [KGB U.S. Line0 [source Venona]

Frank, Pete: Described as a connection of Harold Glasser in 1945.

Frankel, Jan: Austrian Trotskyist activist who came to the U.S. in the late 1930s and became a influential figure in the American Trotskyist movement.

Frankfurter, Felix: New Deal activist and U.S. Supreme Court Justice.

Frankfurter, Gerda: Soviet intelligence source/agent.  Candidate for the circa-1937 cover names “Rita” or “Valet”.[185][186] 

Franklin Institute of Research: May be a garble for the Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology.

Franklin, Salmond, see Franklin, Zalmon

Franklin, Sylvia: Doxsee, Sylvia Lorraine Callen: “Satyr” / “Satir”  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Franklin, Zalmond David: Veteran KGB courier and agent. Also known as Irving Zalmond Franklin, Salmond Franklin, and Franklin Zelman.  American Communist and veteran of the Spanish Civil War.  Married for a time to Sylvia Callen/Caldwell.  There are indications that Franklin, who did considerable covert work for the Soviets, at time deliberately transposed his name and used spelling variations. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[187]  Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Chap”.

Franklin, Zalmond [or Salmond] David: “Chen” in 1944  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Franklin, Zalmond, see Franklin, Salmond

Franks, Oliver: British ambassador to the U.S., 1948.

Frantsuz” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Frenchman”.

Fraser, Leon, former head of Bank for International Settlements.

Fraser, Speir, Meyer and Kidder: Wall Stree. law firm.

“Fraternal” [Bratsky] (cover name): Refers to a local Communist party, such as the CPUSA, or used broadly to refer to other local Communist-aligned institutions.  “Fraternal” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the CPUSA.

“Fraternal”: CPUSA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fratkin, ?: Soviet employee of Amtorg.

Fred” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source, late 1938.

“Fred”: Fred Rose, MP Canada  [source Venona]

“Fred”: unidentifed (KGB line, Venona)

Fred  ??: First name of an FBI agent discussed in American military intelligence records in 1937.

Free Europe: Possibly a truncation of “Radio Free Europe”

“Freedman” [Fridman] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bernard Schuster, October 1944. 

Freeman, Harry: American journalist working for TASS.  Brother of Joseph Freeman.

“Freeman, Joseph”: on masthead of New Masses as Robert Evans [source Chambers Witness]

Freeman, Joseph: Prominant pro-Communist writer.[188] 

“Fregato”: redacted (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Freiheits Partei: Described as an organization that Alfred Stern had aided at some point in the past.

French Committee of National Liberation

“Frenchman” [Frantsuz] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Leon Theremin.

Frey, Andrew of OWI in Lisbon,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Frey, Richard N.    (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Freyd, ?: Described as Polish government-in-exile official in London, 1945.

Fridman” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Freedman”.

Fridrikh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Friedrich”.

“Friedman”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Friedman, J. B, of Treasury,  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Friedrich” [Fridrikh] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Contact of Klaus Fuchs in Britain.

“Friend” / “Priyatel”: Lange, Oscar  (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Friend” [Drug] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified 1945 target of recruitment suggested by Harold Glasser.  Described as someone connected to the “Nat’l Association of Amer. Industries”, 1946.[189]

“Friend” [Drug] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer or agent, New York Station. References to in 1933.

Friends of the New Germany: Pro-Nazi German-American organization.

Friends of the Soviet Union: Originally founded in 1921 as Friends of Soviet Russia, FSU raised funds to support the USSR and promote its interests.  It was covertly controlled by the CPUSA.

Frinovsky, Mikhail Petrovich: Senior KGB official, chief of State Security